KICK IT Canada USA $3.00 Australia $3.60 UK £1.60 FOOD AND LAND Radical Agriculture Permaculture Anarcho-Spatialism Food Not Bombs plus Queer Action Flyposter Frenzy Built Environment and more Our relationship to the food we eat is intimately tied to our relationship with the land on which it grows. In the struggle to create anew, more liberatory society it is vital that we explore the nature of this relationship. The articles in this issue indicate some of the directions such an exploration might take. Murray Bookchin's essay on Radical Agriculture and Jay Bo~ess's article on Perrnaculture link the Joint themes. Anders Corr offers a general theory of anarchist land tenure in his essay on Anarcho-spatialism, and Jeff Johnston gets more specific with his look at land trusts. Food in a very political context is the subject of the two articles that close out the theme, on the growing Food Not Bombs movement and the harassment they've been facing from the San Francisco police, and the McLibel case in England, in which two anarchist activists have been sued by McDonald's for their activities in exposing the corporate giant. In addition, we have pieces exploring the importance of the built environment, the response of Toronto's gay community to the defeat of Bill 167 (gay rights legislation which was defeated by a coalition of rightwing religious nuts and opportunistic politicians), and a Lesbian Avengers Pride Ride through the US south. Plus poetry, posters, biography, news... Changes, Changes Of course, even before you got this far, you will have noticed a couple of the changes this issue initiates - a new cover look and a thicker magazine. Both changes have been under consideration for a while, but cost has held us back. However, recent conversations with some of our distributors have prompted the move. One of my aims in doing Kick It Over is reaching out to new people with anarchist ideas. Fundamental to getting the ideas to new people is getting them to read the magazme. If a more attractive cover inspires more potential readers to look at Kick It Over, or more stores to stock it so that more potential readers can look at it, then let's go for it. Besides which, i have a strong wish to make the magazine more attractive and visually interesting, and a more substantial cover is a start in this direction. As for the increased page count well, there's so much to be said, i'd like to increase it even more. But the biggest change of all is in the editorship. The Kick It Over collective has effectively (for now at least) dissolved. The magazine is now being edited by one person, bob melcombe. This change came about for a variety of reasons, mostly relating to time, energy, and other commitments. Friends and former editors are continuing to help me with some of the work, but final responsibility is mine. This will of necessity mean that such things as correspondence and followups to article and graphics submissions may fall behind. I will do my best to keep up, but urge readers and contributors to be patient. My commitment to Kick It Over is strong, but so is my commitment to my family and friends, and to my other political projects. To the Future... Regular readers will have noticed that Kick It Over has developed some- What We Believe thing of a pattern over our last few issues: roughly a third to a half of each issue focuses on a theme, another third consists of non-theme articles, and the balance is short pieces, columns and briefs, and letters. This is a pattern i quite like and plan to continue. Having a larger page count should facilitate including both more theme-related articles and more general articles. In addition, i hope to add a few more regular features over the next few issues, including a larger book review section, more poetry and visuals, and perhaps some short fiction or experimental writing. The next Kick It Over will be about Work; we'll look at the role of work, ways to make work less onerous, organization of the workplace, and anything else that comes to mind. Deadline for submissions will be January 31. Following that will be an issue on violence, non-violence and anarchism. Let me know what other themes you'd like to see featured. $$$$$$ Kick It Over is seriously short of money. This issue has been funded in large part from Maria's and my pockets - something which we cannot afford to do too often. While i hope the changes and improvements will lead to an increase in both store sales and subscriptions, that's an incremental process, and one that needs money to make it happen. We appreciate any contributions you can make. As announced last issue, we are' increasing our subscription rates, to - continued on page 4- The Kickh 01111' collective is opposed to all forms of hierarchy and domination, whether right or left. for us, revolution is more a process than an event - a process rooted in the radicalization of individuals and in the transformation of everyday life. Rather than make a principle out of violence or nonviolence, we believe in judging actions on their own merits. We support acts of challenge and resistance to authority, and we encourage all efforts to develop models for a new way of living. We are not a mouthpiece for an "official" anarchist movement. We prefer to go beyond the stock issues which make up the "left agenda." Since we are interested in the creation of a politics of everyday life, we attempt to draw out and popularize those implicitly radical values and lifestyles which we believe are pointing in the direction of freedom. We do not identify with the "official left," which seeks to establish itself as a new ruling group. We identify with, and seek to give voice to, the largely unarticulated anti·authoritarian tendencies within society. We are committed to spontaneity, by which we mean the triumph of life over dogma. Hence, we believe that freedom is in need of constant redefinition. Page 2 Kick It Over In This Issue FOOD AND LAND 12 Radical Agriculture by Murray Bookchin 16 Bread a poem by JM de Moissac 17 Pennaculture: Focus on the Future by Jay Boggess 19 Anarcho-Spatialism: Towards an Egalitarian Land Tenure by Anders Carr 24 Land Trusts: Land Held in Common by Jeff Johnston 27 Food Not Bombs: Resisting the Censorship of Free Food and the Criminalization of Homelessness by Alex Vitale and Keith McHenry 32 Ronald McDonald Throws a Tantrum: The McLibel Case columns 5 Paths to Social Change 8 World Without Borders 57 Book Reviews Political Ecology: Beyond Environmentalism; The Politics oflndividualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism; Drunken Boat; Get A Life!: A Green Cure for Canada's Economic Blues 60 In Brief 62 Letters Fall 1994 34 Flyposter Frenzy selections from the book 37 A Canadian Dyke in the Deep South by Deb Ellis 40 Spousal Wrongs by Lynna Landstreet 42 The Crisis in the Built Environment of the UK by Manha Brett and Daniel James 45 Reports from a summer of gatherings••• Social Ecology and Municipal Democracy; Greening Our Cities; Our Local Economy; Anarchist Black Cross; Rural and Urban Collectives - how to make the link 48 Summer Camp for Anarchists: Twenty Years of Radicalizing the Greens at the Institute for Social Ecology by Phillip Chee 50 Neither East Nor West Network Fonning 52 #5781 Goes to Hear Amiri Baraka Read for Post-Modern Poetry and Barnes and Noble, Evanston, IL by Joffre Stewan 54 An Anarchist Life: Giovanni "John" Vattuone by David Koven front cover graphic by John Yates/Stealworks back cover graphic by Bob Tonks graphics this page:Food Not Bombs Doug Minkler/Flyposter Frenzy Page 3 notes to our readers -colltilluedfrom page 2- $12.00/year (4 issues). US and overseas readers please note, payment is due in US funds. (Although we will continue to accept both UK pounds and Australian dollars, it'll make life a whole lot easier if you'd oblige us in this; thanks.) Mailing List Exchanges One of Kick It Over's distributors has asked about a mailing list exchange. They'd like to mail copies of their catalogue to Kick It Over readers. In exchange, we'd get to mail sample copies of Kick It Over to their customers. While this is a way in which both of us can reach out to new readers, i want to know how you feel before going ahead. Please let me know by January 31 if you DO NOT wish to have your name and address either given to, or used on behalf of, other anarchist projects. If i have not heard from you by then, i will assume you don't object. Kick It Over goes to cyber-space Kick It Over now has an e-mail address, and is available through the Internet. The electronic edition (text only) will cost $2.00/issue, $8.00/year (4 issues). Readers who'd like to receive the e-mail edition can contact us at: KIO@web.apc.org. We'd also like to encourage other anarchist and antiauthoritarian projects to make use of this new facilIty. In other news... Long-time Kick It Over readers will recall an article in issue #27, Seekillg UllcitizellShip Papers, in AtI.1/@ ~ tI.1/A-dolri ~ ...t-tI@tI.1/_Iri ..._ is a loosely seU-organized. \,Iolunlary & interna· tional netwOrk established to encourage and practice mutual aid. inspiration and support in the conceptK>n. prooUCbOn. realization &, distrj.. bution of anarchist media of all kinds-PRINT. FILM. VIDEO. RADIO. POETICS. MUSIC. COMIC~ SOUND RECORDINGS. liBRARIES & DOCUMENT.... liON CENTERS. BOOKSTORES & ANARCHIST CENTERS. ETC. Arty anarchist·idenbfied project is welcome to loin thiS netwOt'k by declaring its affiliation (and communicating a v811>ion of this nota if possible). No member of the network has any speofic obligations to any other members beyond its general adherence 10 the spirit or this statement as interpreted by that memo ber. Sond ." SASE lor an upd~ttK1copy 01 OUt current lisl 01 members 10: C..A.L. POB 1446. Columbi~. M: 65205·7446, Of Acts of Res/stanc., 537 Jixru: II 75iU. San FfW'ICf$CO, CA P.f '02, Page 4 which we excerpted sections of Clark Hanjian's pampWet The Citizenship Papers. The pamphlet described Clark's attempt to formally renounce his citizenship of the United States, without having to move out of the country, and included copies of the correspondence between himself and various bureaucratic functionaries. In a recentleller, Clark writes that he has had "no significant exchanges with the government" since then, and wonders, "perhap's they respect my position? More lIkely, they think I'm a nut and they're ignoring me'" We discovered, too late to do anything about it, that we forgot to credit the cover graphics for our last issue. The striking image on the front cover is a picture of a tlIird century carved figure, thought to be a fertilIty figure. It is the logo of DAWN Canada (Disabled Women's Network), and we saw it reproduced in Every Woman's ALmanac. Our thanks to both DAWN and the Women's Press. The back cover came to us courtesy of Analen of Silid Aklatan (the mail-order lending library). Analen says she thinks it's a Clifford Harper drawing; she is involved with a group organizing an anarchist community centre in Los Angeles, and they used the graphic on one of their posters. To make use of the library, write to: Silid AkIatan, PO Box 187, North Hollywood, CA 91603 USA. (A parenthetical editorial comment here - the group organizing the LA centre have called themselves The Management. Apparently, some anarchists don't see the humour in that, and have given them a hard time. Lighten up folks, it's a great joke!) This summer, Maria and i played host to Wolfgang and Sascha Haug. Wolfgang is one of the editors of Schwarzer Faden (Black Thread), the largest of the German anarchist magazines, and manages Trotzdem Verlag, an anarchist book publisher; Sascha is his 6-year old son. The two were on a 6-week vacation, travelling through Ontario, New England, and southern Quebec, and spent their first week in Toronto. Sascha is a lively youngster, and kept us all going. And, each evening after Sascha went to bed, Wolfgang and i had long and interesting conversations about magazine publishing, anarchism, and life in general. It was an enjoyable week for both Maria and i. At the end of their stay with us, Wolfgang and Sascha accompanied me to Peterborough for a weekend anarchist gathering put on by a small group there. While thmgs got off to a slow Issue #34 November 1994 Edited by bob melcombe. Published four times a year by Kick It Over. All correspondence to Kick It Over, PO Box 5811, Station A, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5W 1P2. Subscriptions (one year/4 issues): Individual: Canada $12.00, USA $12.00 - US currency, Australia $14.00 - Australian cash only, UK £6.50 personal cheques OK, no postal money orders. Institutional: Canada $15.00, USA $15.00 - US currency, UK £9, Australia $18.00. Other countries: please pay the US prices in US funds. Sample copies $3.00. E-mail edition: $2.00/issue. $8.00/year (4 issues). E-mail address: KIO@ web.apc.org Canadian Publications Mail Product Sales Agreement No. 522589. ISSN 0823-6526. Printed in Canada. Excerpted in Freedom Ideas International by Our Right to Know Braille Press. Indexed in the Alternative Press Index. Kick It Over is a part of the Anarchist Media Network (@-Netl, and is a member of the Canadian Magazine Publishers Association. start, the bulk of the weekend was 'luite enlightening. Workshops on polItical prisoners, anarcha-feminism, theatre of the oppressed, and anarchist child-raising were complemented by campfire discussions on a wide range of subjects. Probably the two most dominant themes were Euro-eentrism within the anarchist movement, and gender politics and sexism. The necessity to discuss these subjects as intensely as we did indicates, to me at least, how much work we as anarchists have yet to do to make our movement truly mclusive and relevant. Finally, thanks to all those wlIo have helped with this issue: to Gary for the typing, to Kevin and Susan and Steve for the computer assistance, to Andrew and Chris for gelling Kick It Over onto the Internet, and to Maria. - bob melcombe Kick It Over Coalition for Cooperative Community Economies There are many social innovations in many parts of the world creating an alternaUve c<H>perative economics system - worker-<Jwnership, eco-villages, community loan funds, homeschooling, LETS, consumer and housing coops, community supported agriculture, credit unions, community land trusts, homesteading, intentional communities, and other innovations in wItich pe0ple become locally self-reliant through their own self-<leveloped community organizations. A major obstacle to the development of this alternative economic system is that the many options communities have are not brought together in one centre or publication, and they are unreported by the mainstream media. In fact, it is hard to find clear information on many of them. And too often the practical hands-on information is disjointed, and imbedded in a lot of in-news, rhetoric about the failures of the current system, or pItilosopItical discussions on the "Ecowic Era," "Compassionate Age," "New Social Paradigm," "Gaian Culture," or whatever else you want to call the positive future. The initiation of the Coalition on Cooperative Community Economics is intended to overcome this handicap. It will bring together the many relevant social innovations and programs under one heading. The modality is first to have experts in the various activities write short "How To" pamphlets on their techniques, wItich will be made available through the newslellers of the coalition members. Each is being asked to make all pamphlets available through its newsleller or other mailing to its members, in return for the extra coverage given to its work by the other coalition members. In addition to circulating the pamphlets, TRANET will establish a broadscale clearing-house of experts, workshops, publications and other services to help communities set up their own cO-<Jperative economic systems, and to link with one another. Through our TRANET newsleller, computer networking, and other communications, we will answer questions and put community workers in contact with relevant organizations and experts. A global network of self-reliant communities is a vision that many activists and thinkers have seen. This Coalition for Cooperative Community Fall 1994 Economics may, in the long run, be a positive step in that direction. But, in the short run, it can be a service today for communities wanting to solve real problems of real people. There is a need for a comprehensive resource on social innovations created by and for the people for both the short and long run. This program, now in its formative sage, welcomes suggestions, additions, comments and criticisms from all those interested in creating a beller world. For details, contact: Coalition for Cooperative Community Economies, c/o TRANET, PO Box 567, Rangeley, Maine 04970 USA. adapted/ rom an article IJy Bill Ellis Women, War and Peace Women from women's peace movements throughout the world are invited to share their experiences in an activist conference that will include discussions, workshops, a mass vigil and march through Jerusalem. Women, War and Peace: The Vision and the Strategies will be held in Jerusalem December 29-31. Both activists and scholars are invited. For details contact: Erella Shadmi, 4/11 Dresner St., Jerusalem, Israel 93814. Fax: (2) 259-626. Community Switchboard The purpose of this article is to propose that small groups of anarcItism-< JrieOled people come together in various cities to establish and operate community switchboards. Each of these switchboards should cover the city in which it is based and the surrounding rural and small town area. If the concept were to catch on, towns and small cities might establish their own switchboards, but initially the switchboards would likely have to start in areas of high density population, since only a small percentage of that population is likely to be willing to participate in the switchboard during ItS early stages and it is necessary to have a large enough listing that a good proportion of those listed will be matched or find markets; otherwise the project will quickly fail. A communIty switchboard is a listing of people in the community with goods and services to offer. It differs from the classified section of the newspaper in that (a) there is no charge for the listing, (b) the listing is retained until the listee requests its deletion, hopefully because s/he has been matched, (c) it encourages people to advertise goods and services in areas not encouraged by the standard classification of "want ads," Le. tuition, sale of farm produce or handcrafts, meeting like-minded people to pursue some area of study together. It differs from barter systems such as LETS in that participants are not required to join anything, and remuneration (where applicable) can take whatever form the parties agree upon - cash, barter etc. Many people would be brought together for pursuits for wIticb no remuneration is exchanged, such as a book discussion group or a joint study program or the sort of "salon" proposed by the Utne Reader. The group which establishes a community switchboard need not be large, but it must be prepared to make a fairly substantial outlay of energy. Members should be prepared to do outreach, such as speaking to various groups in the cities whose members might have skills or products to advertise in the switchboard. A special effort should be made to reach those with no existing market for their talents - housewives, seniors, the handicapped, etc. The collective must also deCIde such questions as: - whether to publish a printed list of participants, or match only people who call the switchboard? The laller involves more work by the COllective, but enables it to keep much closer tabs on the degree to which the switchboard is functioning. - how will the PO Box and/or phone answering service be financed? - will the listing be computerized or maintained solely on paper or filing cards? - will listings for the sex trade be included? (Besides problems with the state, the sex trade might alienate other possible participants; on the other hand, many anarcItists consider prostitution a legitimate activity. Such publications as the Village Voice and ToroOlo'S NOH! seem to have no problems with promoting sexual practices, however bizarre, of consenting adults.) By starting community -switchboards, anarchists can create a channel for realizing the fundamental goal of non-violent anarcItism: people learning to meet one another's needs through direct personal iOleraction rather than state lllstitutions. The sooner large numbers of people start doing this, the sooner they will begin to perceive the state as superfluous. In terms of creating an alternative economy, switchboards can playa major role by placing people with some- Page 5 thing to sell in touch with those wishing to buy it. At this point, it becomes necessary to distinguish between an "alternative" economy, which a switchboard can directly promote, and an "underground" economy, which it can assist only indirectly, the distinction being that underground transa.ctions remain a secret between the parties involved to avoid government taxation. While of course sympathizing with the underground economy, a switchboard cannot list underground transactions because such a list would identify to the state those taking part. It can, howev~r, list people willing to participate in an alternative economy, and leave it to them, once they have been put in touch through the switChboard, to find the means of carrying their transactions underground. The switchboard should list no illegal activities. Once people have been put in contact through the switchboard, what tlley do together is no longer the switchboard's business. Even while avoiding illegal listings, the operators should be prepared for possible police seizure of the listings by keeping duplicate copies in safe locations, so that they can continue to operate without the original listings. Even tllOugh it may be doing nothing illegal, a switchboard will not be welcomed by the modem state, which is the enemy of any human activity it does not direct or regulate. Anyone interested in further discussion of this suggestion should contact me c/o Kkk It Over. - Gary Moffatt UNPLUGging Channel One In our last issue, we made note of a new comic book from Citizens for Media Literacy; Get a Life! is meant to help teenagers resist the imposition of Channel One, the so-<:alled "news" channel for schools. Channel One provides video equipment to over 12,000 mostly inner-<: ity schools. In return, the schools must SIgn a contract agreeing to show Channel One's "educational news" programs, which are heavily weighted with advertising. Well, now there's an underground student group called UNPLUG. UNPLUG members have been smashing and stealing TVs and videos from their schools, in opposition to Channel One. "TIley're brainwashing us, and we're not taking it any more," says one member. :nus movement has been rapidly growing across the US, especially among inner-<: ity students, and claims many direct action successes. - from a report in Counter Information, c/o 11 Forth Street, Edinburgh EHl, Scotlilnd. Page 6 Acts of Revolt Too often, acts of societal revolt are unspoken and unrecorded, especially by the mainstream media. Ashley Parker Owens is collecting stories about acts of rebellion (including the aftermath), and notes and thoughts about the nature of rebellion, for a book to be published in 1995/96. The articles can be about your own acts or those of someone you know (feel free to change names or request anonymity). Among the topics suggested are: changes in the system, injustice, control by the state, relating to a wide range of subjects - homelessness, AIDS, gender issues, the military, environmental issues" etc. "Personal politics especially welcome." Send essays, documentation, or requests for details (with an SASE) to: Ashley Parker Owens, PO Box 597996, Chicago, IL 60659, USA. An Alternative In Education An earlier piece in tltis section discusses the desirability of establishing community switchboards. Along with the economy, the area in which a Switchboard can most effectively promote alternatives to state conlrol is education. As George Woodcock observes: Anarchists, always seeking a way to liberate natural social urges other than the suicidal course of political reVOlution, have been greatly concerned with education, not merely as a means of drawing out the natural capabilities of young people in society as it exIStS, but also as one of the ways to transform society. It is sigrJificant that this preoccupation has been strongest among non-violent anarchists, like William Godwin and Leo Tolstoy, or among anarchists in general at times when the movement was not collectively dominated by myths of violence ... At least as important in any strategy of social transformation during the rest of the present century as the struggle for workers' control is the remaking of the system of education, and especially the breaking down of the academic hierarchy, not in the direction of the students seizing control of existing campuses - already an obsolete concept - but of what we now call "higher education" being diffused in the community, so that it is not only physically decentralized and organizationally democratized, but also reorganized in such a way that it becomes a life-long process, and work and life are both endlessly enriched by it, eliminating the boundaries between a [person's] work life and the rest of [her/his] existence. (Anarchism and Anarchists) One doesn't have to be a scholar like Woodcock to observe that the school system isn't working. I always liked Harpo Marx's critique in the early portion of his autobiography. Harpo had a good deal more to say offstage than on, and didn't let the fact that he spent less than a year in school stop him from hobnobbing with New York's most famous writers in the Algonquin Room. He writes: School was all wrong. It didn't teach anybody how to exist from day to day, which was how the poor had to live. Teachers had a lot to say about holidays you could never afford to celebrate, like Thanksgiving and Christmas, (but nothing) about the real holidays like St. Patrick's Day, wilen you could watch a parade for free, or Election Day, when you could make a giant bonfire in the middle of the street and tlle cops wouldn't stop you. School didn't teach you what to do when you were stopped by an enemy gang - when to run and when to stand your ground. Schools didn't teach you how to collect tennis balls, build a scooter, ride the El trains and trolleys, hitch onto delivery wagons, own a dog, go for a swim, get a chunk of ice or a piece of fruit - all without paying a cent. Schools didn't teach you which hockshops would give you dough without asking where you got the merchandise. .. or where to sell junk or how to find sleeping room in a bed with four other brothers. School simply didn't teach you how to be poor and live from day to day. (Harpo Speaks) A century later, we find schools still teaching skills relating to holding salaried positions (punctuality, obedience, conformity, etc.) rather than surviving without them, as an increasing percentage of their graduates mus!. With demands for unskilled labour diminishing, we are bombarded witll edicts from officials of the corporate state to tlle effect that only graduates will be employed. What they learn in school will have no bearing on the jobs, but school will keep tllem off the unemployment statistics. Those who can't relate to school and don't want to spend their lives flipping hamburgers or groveling for handouts are going to have to fmd Kick It Over ONE OF A SERIES OF POSTERS PROTESTING THE LIVERMORE LABORATORIES' MILITARY RESEARCH -BOB THAWlEY, JIM HABER Talent: means of learning and supporting themselves outside of those provided by the corporate state. Switchboards can provide a starting point, and sometimes an ongoing resource list, for this search. Students struggling through school can find tutors for a subject which gives them particular problems; parents trying to homeschool their children can get help with subjects they find it difficult to teach themselves; older students who now go to college mainly because they have difficulty motivating themselves to study can have the option of finding a few other people who share the same interest, then working out and pursuing their own course of. readin~ and discussion together (with or WithOut the help of a tutor). Such an alternative to state schools was advocated 25 years ago by Ivan IIIich in his book Deschooling Society. IIIich feels that schools, like other state-controlled institutions (he wrote elsewhere on getting rid of hospitals) foster dependence on artificial, non-caring Institutions to fulfill our needs instead of on community. State institutions - schools, hospitals, the military etc. - invariably require more and more money to fulfill people's rising expectations, until the point is reached where no amount of money suffices. Today we are seeing cutbacks in all these areas as the state's ability to finance them is surpassed, along with screams of agony from those who have become dependent on these institutions. Yet the state won't promote home care instead of hospitals, social defence instead of standing armies or home scbooling. In his sixth chapter Learning Webs, IlIich writes: "the alternative to dependence on schools is not the use of public resources which 'make' people learn; rather it is the creation of a new style of educational relationship between [people] ." Since writing his book, he has observed that other forms of learning designed to meet the needs of the corporate state rather than of individuals, such as those available on non-interactive television or computer systems, can be as damaging as the schools. He recommends four methods of replacing the present system with one of self-motivated learning: - reference services to enable learners to access all educational objects and tools of learning in the community; - skills exchanges to list people willing to impart their skills or knowledge, and the terms under which they would do so; - a communications network to en-able people who wish to embark on some learning program to find partners who desire similar knowledge and are willin~ to work together to attaill it (by using learning tools and comparing notes on their results); - "educators-at-Iarge," professional educators who would operate the learning networks, guide students and parents in their use and do the necessary research to fur-ther knowledge. To re-munerate them, society would issue each person "educational vouchers" with which to pay the educator of her/his choice. A switchboard could provide the second and third of these directly, and the first indirectly by giving learners access to tutors who know where the sources are located (it might also pUblish a pamphlet on Information retrieval, telling people how to use libraries and other resources). The fourth would be beyond its ca-pacity, since it depends on general social acceptance of the desirability of this form of education; in the meantime, students will have to rely on tutors and each other for guidance. I am not entirely convinced that primary schools are at present dispensable; they do irreparable psychological damage to a lot of children, but without them it is likely that many children would not receive at home the encoura~ement they need to learn such basic skills as the three Rs and some appreciation of literature and the environment. For the time being, a learning network at the primary level would likely be limited to assisting parents willing and able to homeschool their children to find the means of so doing. From the age of 12 onwards, however, I see no point in anyone being in school unless s/he is heartset on a career which requires a diploma. We've got to start weaning ourselves from dependence on the state somewhere, and an alternative education system fostered by community switchboards seems to me a good place to start. I would be glad to hear (through KID) from anyone who agrees. - Gary MOffatt !. Desertification ·and Famine Networking Counter Institutions In our last issue, we made note of the growing anarchist community centre movement. Variously called reading rooms, info-shops, info-cafes, and autonomy centres, and operating as meeting places, hang-outs, libraries, and/or concert spaces, these centres are one of the most exciting developments within the anarchist movement in recent times. Last spring, members of a number of centres met in Detroit to discuss and network. Out of that meeting has come a new publication with a great potential. The first issue of (Dis)Connection includes articles calling for the creation of a radical booksellers network, describing how one activist started an anarchist lecture series, looking at the growth and vision of the info-shop movement, and plenty more. Plans call for production of (Dis)Connection to rotate among the various involved collectives. Issue number two will be coming from: Autonomous Zone Infoshop, 2045 W. North Ave., Chicago IL 60622. No price was listed, but when you write them, send a few' bucks. This is an endeavor well worth supporting. Fall/994 Page 7 "FREE OMORI!' BANNERS AT THE JAPANESE SUPREME COURT. PHOTO FROM WARRIOR iWorlq Without/Borders Serbian Anarchists Plead for Aid January 10, 1994, is an important day for libertarian struggle. On that day we set up the first revolutionary libertarian group, Torpedo, in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia). After hard work and a lot of problems we organized ourselves in struggle against this rotten state, the dictatorship of a minority from the ruling party, .and against a new bourgeoisie growing from the economic collapse, the black market, and a dirty war. We will also try to set up new libertarian groups and organizanons in any town where it is possible. The libertarian movement in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia) is just born and we have a big job to do. But we desperaJely need your help comrades [emphasis ours - OGB]. We know that nobody lives good and without problems these days, but maybe you have something that we really need. Not to mention money which everyone needs, we need envelopes and any kind of office supplies, libertarian books, pamphlets, leaflets, newspapers, fanzines or magazines, and new experiences in struggle .... If you don't have anything to send us, please just write to us. We need intemanonaI support. Remember: your help is also part of the revolutionary struggle. You can help us to spread the word and educate people here where the libertarian movement is just born. Torpedo c/o Milan Djuric, M. Velikog 12/10, 11300 Smederevo, Serbia-Yugoslavia. - from Torpedo News FliJsh #1,5-1-94 Omori Appeal Dismissed The Ainu are the indigenous people of Japan. Originally, they lived on much of the main island, but were pushed onto the north island, Hokkaido. The Ainu have long struggled for autonomy. In March, 1976, a bomb exploded at the Hokkaido prefecture office. Japanese anarchist Katsuhisa Omori, because of his involvement in the Ainu struggle, was arrested and charged with the bombing. "Evidence" included his possession of a flashlight battery and a light bulb (no other "bomb ingredients" were found "because he had used them"). Omori's pUblic statements in support of the bombmg were taken as a "confession," even though he has always proclaimed his innocence. Omori was convicted and sentenced to death in a trial rife with improprieties. He has been in jail for the last Page 8 18 years, awaiting appeal. Last June 6, his appeal was finally brought before the Japanese Supreme Court; it was dismissed, and sentence of death was passed on July IS. It is very clear that this was a "political" trial, that Omori has been sentenced because of his political views (in Japanese - Han-nichi Bokoku, anti-Japan, ruining the Japanese state). From a repon sellt by ARP (the Japanese Anarchist Federation): On July IS, the day of the judgment, actiVists involved III Omori's defense gathered at the Supreme Court. While they were in the queue for admission tickets, they unfolded barmers in support of Omori. A 10 meter (33 feel) long barmer ran along the fence outside the Court. Red and black banners with pictures of Omori fluttered. Anarchists brought a black banner reading "Smash the suppression!" "Death to the law!" A sax-player played a song from the movie "Sacco and Vanzetti." Guerrilla theatre dramatizing the case played on the street in front of the Court building. The cops were mobilized to disperse the crowd, but the activists ran them off the street. As in North America, at the opening of court, the audience has to stand up. However, nobody stood up at this court. Even reporters didn't in this atmosphere. Yes, we have no need to pay any respect to the bench. Omori was not allowed to attend the court. The chief justice said "an appeal was dismissed," and immediately disappeared behind closed doors with 3 other judges. People in the gallery shouted and kicked chairs off. All the hearers refused the order to leave the court. Bailiffs were mobilized and a few hearers were expelled. Even a unit of riot cops were ready to operate inside the building. Anarchists shouted "Free Omori!" "We shall win!" and marched out from the court. According to the Japanese judicial system, "the right of interview and correspondence" are greatly reduced for the inmate after receiving the death penalty. For Omori, his rights were reduced as of the middle of August. We call on you to send messages of support to Omori. We will find sOJ.ne way to forward your messages. It IS forbidden to write in foreign language, but we will translate and get your letters to Omori. You also can get in touch with the Omori Defense Group: PO Box 143 Mori 0 Mamoru kai, Veno, Tokyo, Japan. Illtemational activities in defe/lSe of Omori will be vital, and Kick It Over urges readers to colltact the Omori support group or: ARP, PO Box 57, Sakyo Kyoto, 606 Japan; e-mail: arpresist@ igc.apc.org. Spanish Anarchists Arrested After a series of actions taken by peasant groups in the Extremadura region of Spain. there were a number of arrests. Most of these were at a demonstration, but one anarchist activist was arrested at his home two days after the event. Most of those arrested have since Kick It Over been freed. Two, including the anarchist, Jose Paredes, remain in jail. Now, with his trial imminent, his lawyer is asking for money to continue working on the case. Local anarchists believe that the two will be imprisoned, for their opposition to the agricultural policies of the local government. The Collectif Paideia and Los Adelfas are calling for solidarity from international anarchists to help defray the legal expenses and so the activists should not have to pay the personal cost of a prison sentence. Donations can be sent to: Collectif Paideia, apartado 133, 06800 Merida, Spain. News from Nigeria's . Awareness League Many anarchists from around the world jomed in the campaign to free four political prisoners of Nigeria's anarchist Awareness League (AL). At mid-October press time we're happy to say they're still out on bail. But we're sad to say though that the AL has lost one of their founders, Ifeanyi Chukwu. On top of their ongoing legal expenses, they are contributing to the education of Ifeanyi's first daughter plus publishing their book on African anarchism. To conclude the latter they are in need of airfare to South Africa. Send cash donations or blank American Express checks to Neither East Nor West-NYC and we'll take care of it: NENW-NYC, 528 5th St., Brooklyn, NY 11215. Last year AL committed itself to writing a book that will chronicle the history of anarchism in Africa. The book was to be titled Africa and the A1Ulrchist Stroggle. As a result of suggestions from US comrades, however, we have changed the title to History of A1Ulrchism in Africa. Work on the book is progressing fine. Going by our projections, the book should be ready by August this year at the latest. The work has suffered considerably, however, as a result of limited funding as well as the non-availability and/or dearth of books/documents and materials that would have been most useful to use. An earlier planned trip to South Africa has been put on hold as a result. We are nevertheless connnitted to completing the book at any cost. We are still apJ;lfaIing for international support and SOlidarity to enable us to complete the book without having to sacrifice some of its important components. We shall appreciate it if comrades could make available to us any of the following materials: books on American anarchism; books on Bakunin; books by Leon Trotsky, especially Pennanent Revolution; books on an- Fall 1994 archo-syndicalism, etc. Other immediate needs include a printing machine, photocopying machine, electric typewriter, anarchist literature, books and other materials. - from the AL's Revolutio1Ulry Newsletter #1, 1994 PLEASE NOTE NEW ADDRESS: Awareness League, PO Box 1920, Enugu State, Nigeria. Women Living Under Muslim Laws Shirkat Gah, Women's Resource Centre in Lahore, Pakistan, publishes an informative newsletter, Women Living Under Muslim Laws. The first issue of 1994 included articles on legal reform in Pakistan, the fatwa against Bangladeshi feminist writer Taslima Nasreen, reports on violence against women from around the world, as well as news of progress in women's' struggles for rights, and a long and interesting report from the Asian and Pacific Symposium of Non-Governmental Organizations on Women and Development held last November in the Philippines. The most recent issue focuses on the recent Cairo Conference on Population and Development. Under the heading The Woman not the Womb, this issue features reports and articles on women's reprOductive rights around the world, plus several pieces about the conference and the preconference planning. The Woman not the Womb: PopuloJion Control vs. Women's Reproductive Rights is also the title of a Shirkat Gah position paper, available for US $8.00. Contents include a critical review of the colonial experience and post-independence population policy in Pakistan, contextualizing women's health and reproductive rights, and more. One of the most enlightening aspects of reading these reports is breaking the western myth that Islam is some sort of anti-woman monolith, and remembering that the wide range of attitudes towards women in the various Islamic countries indicates the repression of women is not fundamental to Islam, but to patriarchy. Women Living Under Muslim Laws can be contacted at: Shirkat Gah, 38/8, Sarwar Road, Lahore Canlt., Pakistan. Send a reasonable contribution if asking for literature. Bulgaria: Racism is State Policy On the Occasion of the Europeanwide Action Week against Racism, March 19-27, 1994 As anarchists and anti-racists we are compelled to oppose the surging wave of xenophobia and racism. Racial prejudices of hatred and violence have been penetrating even deeper into Bulgarian society. The number of people considering the minorities and foreigners as a cause for the degrading economic situation is increasing. That is absurd!!! The state searches for ways to distract people's attention from the burning problems by rousinll racism and nationalIsm. Extreme natlonalist organizations such as the Bulgarian National Radical Party, Bulgarian National Socialist Party Vazrazhdane, the Right Democratic Movement, the National Committee for Defense of the National Interest, the Fatherland Party of Labour, Will for Bulgaria, Free Bulgaria and a number of other small parties standing on profascist and pro-Bolshevist positions have been founded and financially supported. The activities of the non-formal neo-nazi groups of skin-heads, yotters r. -DGBj and others are ignored and tolerated by the authorities. Victims of their atrocities are tens of foreign workers and students, members of the minority groups as well as Bulgariarts expressing different ideas or even appearances. In the middle of January this year nazi skin-heads kiJJed a defenseless foreigner on Graf Ignatiev Street in the center of Sofia, but the fuct was not mentioned by the press or police bulletin. Who Stands Behind All This? The organizations and groups mentioned above are dummies manipulated by the state. The institutions of repressIOn and violence, secret services, the supporters of the so called "national IIlterests," the ex" revival" activists, the former Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP), and other jingoists and rascals of all sorts support them. Police racism inVOlving a great number of Ministry of Interior Affairs officials is particularly cruel. There have already been several cases of cops beinll declared not guilty after killing Gypsies "by accident." Parallel with this, there is constant J?Olice violence against women, children and men of Gypsy origin stimulated by racist motives. The national mass media, the "independent" press and other means of manipulation of the ~ublic mind play a considerable role III this. The minor crimes committed by foreign citizens or "our swarthy brothers" are excessively blown up. On the other hand, there is a deliberate blackout on the facts connected with the total corruption of the state apparatus, the "honest" businessmen's relations with the politicians and the authorities, the deals amounting to billions of dollars at the expense of common people and Page 9 the constant despoliation and violence against the society by the system. The consequences of the propagation of racism and nazism will be dreadful for the whole society. That is why our appeal is: Let us reject all racial prejudices - we are first of all people! In the name of humanism, in memory of the millions of innocent victims - racism, nazism, bolshevism never again! Repulse anti-human ideologies! Let's fight for a free society! Freedom, morality, conscience! - 20th March 1994, Sofia. - reprinted from @etion #5, April/94, bulletitl of Bulgaria's Federation of Anarchist Youth: FAM, c/o AnJonio Groulev, 18 Nikola Slavkov Street, et. 1, ap. 6, SOfUl1463, Bulgaria. Squatting in Prague In September, 1993, activists from the Czech Anarchist Federation inhabited an old farm called Ladronka in Prague, not far away from the city line. They aimed to create a cultural, social, and autonomous centre. Soon after the beginning, in the course of the most important repairs, there were a few photo and picture exhibits which attracted 20 to 30 people daily. As well as holding many concerts, Ladronka hosted the first underground squat festival. This Olrupa Fest (29th and 30th of October) had many Czech and Moravian hardcore bands play, plus a few bands came from Poland. Another big action was "The Second Autonomy Party" in December, 1993, to celebrate the second anniversary of the monthly Anarchist Federation PRO-SQUAT MARCH IN PRAGUE, MARCH/94 Page 10 magazine Autonomie. The Ladronka squatters have have had their problems with the police. The police have disconnected the electricity many times. However, interest and energy among the squatters remains high. In the winter, even when the electricity was disconnected, there were concerts where many Czech and foreign bands played. In February, 1994, pressure from the authorities led to an eviction notice dated March 15 from the owner, a firm by the name of TRADE. Here it is important to note that a recent law makes it possible for police to sentence unlawful occupants of a flat or property to a 2-year term without suspension. In response, the AF started a campaign to defend the people of Ladronka. A petition appeahng to TRADE, the Cowlcil and the Ministry of Culture to negotiate with representatives of "alternative initiatives" was initiated, and other support actions were undertaken. Because of these actions (the petition had over 700 si~atwes) , TRADE entered negotiauons with the squatters on March 14. While these negotiations yielded no written agreement between the squatters and TRADE, it did seem that TRADE did not want to evict the squatters so urgently. The squatters have presented their own proposal on the use of the farm and its resources, and are waiting for a response. The latest info is that TRADE is willing to make an agreement with the squatters once the Ladronka Foundation outlines a detailed proposal about its plans to use the resources including financial assurances. Ladronlca is a large enough space to accomadate many activities: concerts, lectures and theater, inf<Kafe and tea room, vegetarian restaurant, rehearsal studio for bands, studio and exhibition spaces, offices for foundations and other organizations. In late April, the police resumed harrassment of the Ladronka centre. They checked all identity cards of all those present and wrote down everyone's name, under the pretext of "looking for missing persons." This seems like it could signal coordinated action against the Prague alternative/autonomous scene, because a second squat, The Golden Boat, was under pressure too. (The Golden Boat is a "non-political" squat interested in only alternative culture and life-style). Contact: Autonomie (AF), PO Box 223, Prague 1 11121, Czech Republic; Ladronka, Tomanova 1, Prague 6 - Brevnov 16 000, Czech Republic. - adilptedfrom the Anarcfiist Federationlnfo Bulletin, April/94. Mac Pariadka Mac Pariadka is a Polish anarchist magazine (in Polish). It was started in 1990. Since January/93 Mac is a regular monthly (with holiday breaks). Several people from the Polish anarchist movement write for Mac. General subjects in each issue are: analysis of Polish and international news; anarchistic visions; the anarchist past; alternative culture; and lots of drawings and comics. In the middle of each issue there is all alternative music insert on yellow paper called The Yellow Papers. Mac Pariadka doesn't represent any special anarchist wing - they try to present all possible options of the anarchist idea. They are looking for co-operation from abroad, especially about anarcho-syndicalist; articles, news and graphics are very welcome: Mac Pariadka PO Box 67, 81-806 Sopot, Poland. (Mac is the best @ zine ill Poland. We can't figure the SUbscription price so send them a couple Of US$ or equivalent. - OGB) A Letter from Estonia Hello! A few days ago some of Estonian anarchists decided to establish an Estonian Anarchist League. We have some ideas, how to do it, but we will be happy if you will back us up with your experiences. We set our hopes on you. Mari-Liis B, ViIja 112-55, V6ru EE2710, Estonia. Kick It Over A CALL TO RECLAIM MAYDAY Protest the IMF and the World Bank on May 11985 We see today that the main purpose of the cold war was to prevent our movements for a better life, our class and our organizations in the First World, Eastern Bloc and the Third World from coming together. Such alliances could seriously threaten the existence of all exploitative institutions, whether they are ruled by corporations or buy the state, whether it calls itself capitalist or socialist. The end of the Cold War was the result, at least in part, of the refusal to accept this division by people in the First, Second and Third worlds. But the end of this form of rule has only led to the whole world coming under the tyra?I!y of one global system of explOItation, managed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and hacked up by the military repression of the United States, the UN and virtually all of the governments of the world. These institutions were consciously created at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 to constitute a capitalist international. The Communist and Third World nationalist bureaucracies ~adually became active collaborators WIth the IMF/World Bank, using foreign debts to discipline their own working class. The IMF and the World Bank are this year arrogantly celebrating their fiftieth armiversary. We want to ruin this party. We at NeIther East nor West, New York and Workers' Solidarity Action, New York and New Jersey are writing to invite you to join in organizing a day of action against the IMF and the World Bank to be held on (or around) Monday, May I, 1995. We have chosen May Day because we wish to reclaim the tradition of worldwide working-Class wlity. The May Day tradition (which began as a commemoration for the martyrdom of anarchist activists following a general strike for a shorter workweek in the United States in 1886) has become somewhat hollow for those raised on Communist-bloc war parades, empty leftist marches in Europe and parts of the Third World, and Law Day in the US. Now more than ever we need to work together independent of official borders. This is a project in which all the groups receiving this mailing are already active, but our hope is that worldwide coordinated actions will help to expand this badly needed planetary alliance against these institutions which have done so much damage to people, communities, cultures and the environment all over the world. In choosing this day we are Fall 1994 also building on an older May Day tradition of celebrating the arumaI reawakening of the earth in spring. We are reclaiming our planet from these desecrators of the land who expropriate and exploit us. We especially hope to bring the role of the IMF and the World Bank to the attention of North Americans and others from western countries who are less aware of the role of these organizations, even in their own countries. The IMF and World Bank are located in the US They are funded primarily by the richest governments. The suffering of people in first world countries is tile result of IMF and WB policies, no less than in other parts of the world. ThrougIJout the world, the growth of homelessness, loss of farnlS and jobs, destruction of neigIJbourhoods, slashing of social programs and education, de-capitalization of local industries, creation of artificial famines, repression of labour and other social movements has grown as a result of IMF/WB policies. We also hope that this day of acnon can help build autonomous contacts and networks between peoples in every part of the planet. Such contacts have until recently been limited or made difficult by the division of the world into two Cold War blocs, and by the political loyalties which developed around this division. Nearly every country in the world, regardless of political ideology, "capitalist" or "communist," has been devastated by structural adjustment programs, the debt crisis and development schemes organized by the IMF and World Bank. All over the world, people are begiffiling to express their hatred of these bureaucrats and their policies. Demonstrations and revolts against the IMF/WB have already . taken place in dozens of countries, ranging from Russia to Chiapas, from Melanesia to the West Bank, from Lagos to Berlin. The time has come to act together and bring an end to the IMF and the World Bank. The statist solutions of the past are repudiated, as nearly every government has either collaborated with or surrendered to the IMF/WB and imposed austerity and repression. Only a new movement everywhere, for a world without supranational government, can free all our lives from the authoritarianism and exploitation which goes by the names structural adjustment, privatization, liberalization, the free market, the global economy, budget austerity, "democracy." We are finally able to pay attention to the man behind the curtain. At this point, we have a year's lead time. A few last words: we are not "in charge" of this - we are volunteering to act as facilitators for the communication on this proposed project. We want to start talking about the kinds of actions that the different groups would like to do, and what resources they have available. We would like every group to contact us as soon as they have some ideas about what they are going to do, so we can start passing on the information to the other groups. We will do several mailings about proposed plans, and will be sending out some kind of IMF/WB information packet (if you can help on this last, please let us know this too.) We are also not dictating the kinds of action to betaken. If your group feels it would be most effective participating in some larger anti-IMF/WB action in your area, do so by all means and pass the news on to us. Please contact us to let us know what you think, so we can start preparing to May Day 1995. Neither East nor West New York 339 Lafayette Street New York NY 10012 USA. Page II RADICAL AGRICULlURE IAIg';"'rure ;, , ,~ of ,,""re. Tho "";,,,,,, of food is a social and cultural phenomenon unique to humanity. Among animals, anything that could remotely be described as food cultivation appears ephemerally, if at all; and even among humans, agriculture developed little more than ten thousand years ago. Yet, in an epoch when food cultivation is reduced to a mere industrial technique, it becomes especially important to dwell on the cultural implications of "modem" agriculture - to indicate their impact not only on public health, but also on humanity's relationship to nature and the relationship of human to human. The contrast between early and modern agricultural practices is dramatic. Indeed, it would be very difficult to understand the one through the vision of the other, to recognize that they are united by any kind of cultural continuity. Nor can we ascribe this contrast merely to differences in technology. Our agricultural epoch - a distinctly capitalistic one - envisions food cultivation as a business enterprise to be operated strictly for the purpose of generating profit in a market economy. From this standpoint, land is an alienable commodity called "real estate," soil a "natural resource," and food an exchange value that is bought and sold impersonally through a medium called "money." Agriculture, in effect, differs no more from any branch of industry than does steelmaking or automobile production. In fact, to the degree that food cultivation is affected by non-industrial factors such as climatic and seasonal changes, it lacks the exactness that marks a truly "rational" and scientifically managed operation. And, lest these natural factors elude bourgeois manipulation, they too are the objects of speculation in future markets and between middlemen in the circuit from farm to retail outlet. In this impersonal domain of food production, it is not surprising to find that a "farmer" often turns out to be an airplane pilot who dusts crops with pesticides, a chemist who treats soil as a lifeless repository for inorganic compounds, an operator of immense agricultural machines who is more familiar with engines than botany, and perhaps most decisively, a financier whose knowledge of land may be less than that of an urban cab driver. Food, in turn, reaches the consumer in containers and in forms so highly modified and denatured as to bear scant resemblance to the original. In the modern, glistening supermarket, the buyer walks dreamily through a spectacle of packaged materials in which the pictures of plants, meat, and dairy foods replace the life forms from which they are derived. The fetish assumes the form of the real phenomenon. Here, the individual's relationship to one of the most intimate of natural experiences - the nutriments indispensable to life - is divorced from its roots in the totality of nature. Vegetables, fruit, cereals, dairy foods and meat lose their identity as organic realities and often acquire the name of the corporate enterprise that produces them. The "Big Mac" and the "Swift Sausage" no longer convey even the faintest notion that a living creature was painfully butchered to provide the consumer with that food. Page 12 by Murray Bookchin This denatured outlook stands sharply at odds with an earlier animistic sensibility that viewed land as an inalienable, almost sacred domain, food cultivation as a spiritual activity, and food consumption as a hallowed social ritual. The Cayuses of the Northwest were not unique in listening to the ground, for the "Great Spirit," in the words of a Cayuse chief, "Appointed the roots to feed the Indians on."' The ground lived, and its voice had to be heeded. Indeed, this vision may have been a cultural obstacle to the spread of food cultivation; there are few statements of the hunter against agriculture that are more moving than Smohalla's memorable remarks: "You ask me to plough the ground. Shall I take a knife and tear my mother's breast? Then when I die she will not take me to her bosom to rest. "2 When agriculture did emerge, it clearly perpetuated the hunter's animistic sensibility. The wealth of mythic narrative that surrounds food cultivation is testimony to an enchanted world brimming with life, purpose and spirituality. Ludwig Feuerbach's notion of God as the projection of man omits the extent to which early man is stamped by the imprint of the natural world and, in this sense, is an extension or projection of it. To say that early hunJanity lived in "partnership" with this world tends to understate the case; humanity lived as pan of this world - not beside it or above it. Because the soil was alive, indeed the mother of life, to cultivate it was a sacred act that required invocatory and appeasing rituals. Virtually every aspect of the agricultural procedure had its sanctifying dimension, from preparing a tilth to harvesting a crop. The harvest itself was blessed, and to "break bread" was at once a domestic ritual that daily affirmed the solidarity of kinfolk as well as an act of hospitable pacification between the stranger and the community. We still seal a bargain with a drink or celebrate an important event with a feast. To fell a tree or kill an animal required appeasing rites, which acknowledged that life inhered in these beings and that this life partook of a sacred constellation of phenomena. Naive as the mytlls and many of tllese practices may seem to the modem mind, they reflect a truth about the agricultural situation. After having lost contact with tllis "prescientific" sensibility - at great cost to the fertility of the land and to its ecological balance - we now know that soil is very much alive; that it has its health, its dynamic equilibrium, and a complexity comparable to that of any living community. Not that the details that enter into this knowledge are new; rather, we are aware of them in a new and holistic way. As recently as the early 1960s, American agronomy generally viewed soil as a medium in which living organisms were largely extraneous to the chemical management of food cultivation. Having saturated the soil with nitrates, insecticides, herbicides, and an appalling variety of toxic compounds, we have become the victims of a new type of pollution that could well be called "soil pollution." These toxins are the hidden additives to the dinner table, the unseen specters that return to us as the residual products of our exploitative altitude toward the natural world. No less sig- Kick It Over JONATHAN STANGAOOM nificantly, we have gravely damaged soil in vast areas of the earth and reduced it to the simplified image of the modern scientistic viewpoint. The animal and plant life so essential to the development of a nutritive, friahle soil is diminished, and in many places approaches the sterility of impoverished, desert-like sand. By contrast, early agriculture, despite its imaginary aspects, defined humanity's relationship to nature within sound ecological parameters. As Edward Hyams observes, the altitude of people and their culture is as much a part of their technical equipment as are the implements they employ. If the "axe was only the physical tool which ancient man used to cut down trees" and the "intellectual tool enabled him to swing his axe" effectively, "what of the spiritualtool?" This "tool" is the "member of the trinity of tools which enables people to control and check their actions by reference to the 'feeling' which they possess for the consequences of the changes they make in their environments." Accordingly, tree-felling would have been limited by their state of mind as early people "believed that trees had souls and were worshipful, and they associated certain gods with certain trees. Osiris with acacia; Apollo with oak and apple. The temples of many primitive peoples were groves.... " If the mythical aspects of this mentality are evident enough, the fact remains that the mentality as such "was immensely valuable to the soil comm!ffiity and therefore, in the long run, to man. It meant that no trees would be wantonly felled, but only when it was absolutely necessary, and then to the accompaniment of propitiatory rites which, if they did nothing else, served constantly to remind tree-fellers that they were doing dangerous and important work.... "3 One may add that, if culture can be regarded as a "tool," a mere shift in emphasis would easily make it possible to regard tools as part of culture. 11lis different emphasis comes closer to what Hyams is trying to say than does his own formulation. In fact, what uniquely marks the bourgeois mentality is tlle debasement of art, values, and rationality to mere tools - a mentality that has even infiltrated the radical critique of capitalism if one is to judge from the tenor of the Marxian literature that abounds today. Fall 1994 IAI""i~1 'pp~h 00 ,gri"h,'" ~,'" " ,,_~d the prevailing instrumentalist approach that views food cultivation merely as a "human technique" opposed to "natural resources." This radical ap-proach is literally ecological, in the strict sense that the land is viewed as an oikos - a home. Land is neither a "resource" nor a "tool," but the oikos of myriad kinds of bacteria, fungi, insects, earthworms, and small mammals. If hunting leaves this oikos essentially undisturbed, agriculture by contrast affects it profoundly and makes humanity an integral part of it. Human beings no longer indirectly affect the soil; they intervene into its food webs and biogeochemical cycles directly and immediately. Conversely; it becomes very difficult to understand human social institutions without referring to the prevailing agricultural practices of a historical period and, ultimately, 10 the soil situation to which they apply. Hyams's description of every human community as a "soil community" is unerring; historically, soil types and agrarian technological changes played a major, often decisive, role in determining whether the land would be worked cooperatively or individualistically - whether in a conciliatory manner or an exploitative one - and this, in turn, profoundly affected the prevailing system of social relations. The highly centralized empires of the ancient world were clearly fostered by the irrigation works required for arid regions of the Near East; the co-operative medieval village, by the openfield strip system and the moldboard plough. Lynn White, Jr., in fact, roots the Western coercive altitude towards nature as far back as Carolingian times, with the ascendancy of the heavy European plough and the consequent tendency to allot land to peasants not according to their family subsistence needs but "in proportion to their contribution to the ploughteam."4 He finds this changing altitude reflected in Charlemagne's efforts to rename the months according to labour responsibilities, thereby revealing an emphasis on work rather than on nature or deities. "The old Roman calendars had occasionally shown genre scenes in human activity, but the dominant tradition (which continued in Byzantium) was to depict the months as passive personifications bearing symbols of attributes. The new Carolingian Page 13 With the technologyofthe ur'-""1 Revolution. our GtIle.tics, FerriJistr. and Pesticide Divisions have l/.UinliJpled the yidd per acre. calendars, which set the pattern for the Middle Ages, are very different: they show a coercive attitude towards natural resources. They are definitely northern in origin; for the olive, which loomed so large in the Roman cycles, has now vanished. The pictures change to scenes of ploughing, harvesting, wood-chopping, people knocking down acorns for the pigs, pig-slaughtering. Man and nature are now two things, and man is master."- Yet not until we come to the modem capitalist era do humanity and nature separate as almost complete foes, and the "mastery" by human over the natural world assumes the form of harsh domination, not merely hierarchical classification. The rupture of the most vestigial corporate ties that once united clansfolk, guild-members, and the community of the polis into a nexus of mutual aid; the reduction of everyone to an antagonistic buyer or seller; the rule of competition and egotism in every arena of economic and social life - all of this completely dissolves any sense of community, whether with nature or in society. The traditional assumption that community is the authentic locus of life fades so completely from human consciousness that it ceases to exercise any relevance to the human condition. The new starting point for forming a conception of society or of the psyche is the isolated, atomized person fending for him- or herself in a competitive jungle. The disastrous consequences of tins outlook toward nature and society are evident enough in a world burdened by explosive social antagonisms, ecological simplification, and widespread pollution. Radical agriculture seeks to restore humanity's sense of community: first, by giving full recognition to the soil as an ecosystem, a biotic community; and second, by viewing agriculture as the activity ofa natural human commUllity, a rural society and culture. Indeed, agriculture becomes the practical, day-to-day interface of soil and human communities, the means by which both meet and blend. Such a meeting and blending involves several key presuppositions. The most obvious of these is that humanity is part of the natural world, not above it as "master" or "lord." Undeniably, human consciousness is unique in its scope and insight, but uniqueness is no warrant for domination and exploitation. Radical agriculture, in this respect, accepts the ecological precept that variety does not have to be structured along hierarchical lines as we tend to do under the influence of hierarchical society. Things and relations that patently benefit the biosphere must be valued for their own sake, each unique in its own way and contributory to the whole - not one above or below the other and fair game for domination. Variety, in both society and agriculture, far from being constrained, must be promoted as a positive value. We are now only too familiar with the fact that the more simplified an ecosys-tem - and, in agriculture, the more limited the variety of domesticated stocks involved - the more likely is the ecosystem to break down. The more complex the food webs, the more stable the biotic structure. This insight, which we have gained at so costly an expense to the biosphere and to ourselves, merely reflects the age-old tllrust of evolution. The advance of the biotic world consists primarily of the differentiation, colonization and growing web of interdependence of life-forms on an inorganic planet - a Page 14 long process that has remade the atmosphere and landscape along lines that are hospitable for complex and increasingly intelligent organisms. The most disastrous aspect of prevailing agricultural methodologies, with their emphasis on monoculture, crop hybrids, and chemicals, has been the simplification they have introduced into food cultivation - a simplification that occurs on such a global scale that it may well throw back the planet to an evolutionary stage where it could support only simpler forms of life. Radical agriculture's respect for variety implies a respect for the complexity of a balanced agricultural situation: the innumerable factors that influence plant nutrition and well-being; the diversified soil relations that exist from area to area; the complex interplay between Climatic, geological and biotic factors that make for tile differences between one tract of land and another; and the variety of ways in which hunJan cultures react to these differences. Accordingly, the radical agriculturist sees agriculture not only as science but also as art. The food cultivator must live on intimate terms with a given area of land and develop a sensitivity for its special needs - needs that no textbook approach can possibly encompass. The food cultivator must be part of a "soil community" in the very meaningful sense that she or he belongs to a unique biotic system, as well as to a given social system. Yet to deal with these issues merely in terms of technique would be a scant improvement over the approach that prevails today in agriculture. To be a technical cOlmoisseur of an "organic" approach to agriculture is no better than to be a mere practitioner of a chemical approach. We do not become "organic farmers" merely by culling the latest magazines and manuals in this area, any more than we become healthy by consuming "organic" foods acquired from the newest suburban supermarket. What basically separates the organic approach from the synthetic is the overall attitude and praxis the food cullivator brings to the natural world as a whole. At a time when organic foods and environmentalism have become highly fashionable, it may be well to distinguish the ecological outlook of radical agriculture from the crude "environmentalism" that is currently so widespread. Environmentalism sees the natural world merely as a habitat that must be engineered with minimal pollution to suit society's "needs," however irrational or synthetic these needs may be. A truly ecological outlook, by contrast, sees the biotic world as a holistic unity of which fATBACK fARM }\OLDING~ PLC Kick 1t Over humanity is a part. Accordingly, in this world, human needs must be integrated with those of the biosphere if the human species is to survive. This integration, as we have already seen, involves a profound respect for natural variety, for the complexity of natural processes and relations, and for the cultivation of a mutualistic attitude toward the biosphere. Radical agriculture, in shon, implies IlOt merely new techniques in food cultivation, but a new lIOn-Promethean sensibility toward land and society as a whole. IcI~ ~ ""'" ~ "h;", fully <hi, ~w solely as individuals, without regard to t=he;hlamrge"r social world around us? Radical agriculture, I think, would be obliged to reject an isolated approach of this kind. Although individual practice doubtless plays an invaluable role in initiating a broad movement for social reconstruction, ultimately we will not achieve an ecologically viable relationship with the natural world without an ecological society. Modem capitalism is inherently ami-ecological: the nuclear relationship from which it is constituted - the buyer-seller relationship - pits individual against individual and, on the larger scale, huntanity against nature. Capital's law of life of infinite expansion, of "production for the sake of production" and "consumption for the sake of consumption," turns the domination and exploitation of nature into the "highest good" of social life and human self-realization. Even Marx succumbs to this inherently bourgeois mentality when he accords to capitalism a "great civilizing influence" for reducing nature "for the first time simply (to) an object for mankind, purely a matter of utility... ." Nature "ceases to be recognized as a power in its own right; and the theoretical knowledge of its independent laws appears only as a stratagem designed to subdue it to human requiremems...."' In contrast to this tradition, radical agriculture is essentially libertarian in its emphasis on community and mutualism, rather than on competition, an emphasis that derives from the writings of Peter Kropotkin' and William Morris. This emphasis could justly be called ecological before the word "ecology" became fashionable, indeed, before it was coined by Ernst Haeckel a century ago. The notion of blending town with country, of rotating specifically urban with agricultural tasks, had been raised by so-<alled utopian socialists such as Charles Fourier during the Industrial Revolution. Variety and diversity in one's workaday Pricts never faU, becau,e me St.J'" bu}, what i,,,'[ wanted. wich tax money. Fall 1994 If we WlJUst. field wes<tagrant!or le.JVlns it to recuver. activities - the Hellenic ideal of the rounded individual in a rounded society - found its physical counterpart in varied surroundings that were neither strictly urban nor rural, but a synthesis of both. Ecology validated this ideal by revealing that it fornled the precondition not only for humanity's psychic and social sell-being but for the well-being of the natural world as well. Our own era has gone further than this visionary approach. A century ago it was still possible to reach the countryside without difficulty even from the largest cities and, if one so desired, to leave the city permanently for a rural way of life. Capitalism had not so completely effaced humanity's legacy that one lacked evidence of neighbourhood enclaves, quaint life-styles and personalities, architectural diversity, and even village society. Predatory as the new industrial system was, it had not so completely eliminated the human scale as to leave the individual totally faceless and estranged. By contrast, we are compelled to occupy even quasi-rural areas that have become essentially urbanized, and we are reduced to anonymous digits in a staggering bureaucratic apparatus that lacks personality, human relevance, or individual understanding. In population, if not in physical size, our cities compare to the nation-states of the last century. The human scale has been replaced by the inhuman scale. We can hardly comprehend our own lives, much less manage society or our immediate environment. Our very self-integrity, today, is implicated in achieving the vision that utopians and radical libertarians held forth a century ago. In this matter, we are struggling not only for a better way of life butfor our very survival. Radical agriculture Offers a meaningful response to this desperate situation in tenns not of a fandful flight to a remote agrarian refuge, but of a systematic recoloniwtion of the land along ecological lines. Cities are to be decentralized - and this is no longer a utopistic fantasy but a visible necessity which even conventional city planning is beginning to recognize and new eco-<:ommunities are to be established, tailored artistically to the ecosystems in which they are located. These ecocommunities are to be scaled to human dimensions, both to afford the greatest degree of self-management possible and personal comprehension of the social situation. No bureaucratic, ntanipulative, centralized administration here, but a voluntaristic system in which the economy, society and ecology of an area are administered by the community as a whole, and the distri-lhe hun,yyhave nothinstopaywith. Have some respect for market forces !! ~ CONAlO ROOUM/WllOCAT ABC OF BOSSES Page 15 bution of the means of life is detennined by need, rather than by labour, profit or accumulation. But radical agriculture carries this tradition further into technology itself. In contemporary social thought, technology tends to be polarized into highly centralized labourextensive forms on the one hand and decentralized, craftscale labour-intensive forms on the other. Radical agriculture steers the middle ground established by an ecotechnology: it avails itself of the tendency toward miniaturization and versatility, quality production, and a balanced combination of mass manufacture and crafts. For side by side with the Olassive, highly specialized fossil-fuel technology in use today, we are beginning to see the emergence of a new technology - one that lends itself to the local deployment of many energy resources on a small scale (wind, solar and geothermal) - that provides a wider latitude in the use of sOlall, multipurpose machinery, and that can easily provide us with the high-quality semifinished goods that we, as individuals, may choose to finish according to our proclivities and tastes. The rounded eco-eommunities of the future would thereby be sustained by rounded ecotechnologies' The people of these communities, living in a highly diversified agricultural and industrial society, would be free to avail themselves of the most sophisticated technologies without suffering the social distortions that have pitted town against country, mind against work, and humanity against itself and the natural world. Radical agriculture brings all of these possibilities into focus, for we must begin with the land if only because the basic materials for life are acquired from the land. This is not only an ecological truth but a social one as well. The kind of agricultural practice we adopt at once reflects and reinforces the approach we will utilize in all spheres of industrial and social life. Capitalism began historically by undermining and overcoming the resistance of the traditional agrarian world to a market economy; it will never be fully transcended unless a new society is created on the land that liberates humanity in the fullest sense and restores the balance between society and nature. FOOTNOTES 1. T.e. McLuhan, ed., Touch the Eerth (New York, Outerbridge & Lazard, 1971), p.8. 2. Ibid., p. 56. 3. Edward Hyams, Soil end Cultivetion (London, Thames & Hudson, 1952). pp 274,276. 4. Lynn White, Jr., Medieval Technology and Social Change (New York, Oxford Univ. Press, 1962), p. 56. 5. Ibid., p. 57. 6. Karl Marx, Grundrisse, ed. and trans. David McLellan (New York; Harper & Row, 1971), p. 94. 7. See especially P. Kropotkin, Fields, Factories and Workshops Tomorrow (New York, Harper & Row, 1974). Mutual Aid (Boston, Sargent Publish- , ers, 1955), and also: Conquest of SrBBd (New York; New York University Press, 1972). 8. See Murray Bookchin, Post-Scarcity Anarchism (Berkeley, Ramparts Press, 1972). Page 16 BREAD They asked me why I still make bread "When you can buy it at the store, for next to nothing. " Cheap and easy I didn't know what to say I've always made it never wondered why I only put the finest things inside the freshest eggs honey pure water flour from the field but that isn't the reason The smell of it fills my house on bread day my children gather stop their play and sit in the kitchen to wait but that isn't the reason It must have something to do with the smell of the dry lifeless flour the smell of the yeast turning the lump into a living thing growing under my hands like a child when you love her J .M. de Moissac JENNIFER SANDERS Kick It Over EERMACULTURE Focus on the Future by Jay Boggess As a final goal, permaculture may not be for everyone. It is quite involved and somewhat complicated, but it is a big solution to so many problems we, as a living planet, face now and in the near furure. Living in a self-sufficient manner takes a lot of adjustment and discipline for most of us, as well as time and energy. Step 1. The first step differs from person to person, but it seems appropriate to start with a wholistic, bealthy and satisfying diet mostly from foods gathered from your specific bioregion (bioregion is an area with common climate and growing conditions). This accomplisbes a number of things; prepares your body for a diet you can grow, supports bealthy farming and permaculrures in the area, and gives a person all the nutritious calories for a bard working day. Buying direct from farmers through community supported bard together for a common goal. Self sufficiency is different from self reliance. Sufficiency describes total energy and resource recycling without inputs from outside sources, (excluding the sun, wind, rain, etc.). Self reliance is connecting with the community, sbaring resources and energy. This is a lot more common than total self sufficiency, especially in colder climates or in areas with difficult growing conditions. The integral urban bouse is an example of self reliance. Permaculture leans toward self sufficiency. A KITCHEN .....NTRY p'O\/odes"o<~lo<".' oen SU·plult!oP.e5l!'1'VeCl brUu'''''''Q poeol'!\g II\llO""oI"lg DIAGRAMS FROM THE INTEGRAL URBAN HOUSE ~AN AQUACULTUftl 'OND le'l.IStnel~~obotI... t'lI'''''''IlI" .. ~ ""~l""'Il"t'l'II!dl\O<"(" Steps Toward Permaculeure FOOD RAISING Tbe word "permaculrure,· coined by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in the early 1970s, describes a lifestyle connected to intensive integrated food production, waste, water management and energy systems. PermacuIrure is more than permanent agriculrure; it is permanent culrure, people and land coexisting in sucb a way as to be beneficial 10 both. Bill Mollison describes in detail food production and other integrated buman life support systems in his book Pennaculture: A practical guide for a sustainable future (Island Press, Washington DC, 1990). Another book describing integrated systems for urban conditions is The Integral Urban House by Farallones Instirute (Sierra Books, San Francisco CA, 1979). This book sbows an existing two story bouse in San Francisco on a lot less than 1/4 acre. The house is fitted with all sorts of appropriate technologies for healthy environmentally safe living. Some examples of appropriate technologies include: solar panels for electricity, solar panels for heat and hot water, passive solar design for heat and hot water, (Le. an attached greenhouse), composting toilets, and aquaculrure, which produces aquatic food as well as acting as a tbermal mass that can be used to store beat. AquacuIrure te~hnology is a good example of an integrated system, producing more than one resource. Aquaculrure can also be used as a biofilter reclaiming gray and waste water and, going a step further, can be combined with a greenhouse serving a number of systems and resource production. Greenhouse aquaculrure shows the effectiveness of a closed system, creating, reusing and recycling all energy needed for adequate survival. Permaculrure attempts to become a closed system for buman babitation. It is labour intensive and may be costly to start all at once in materials, labour and time, but once in operation permaculrure is a wbolistic babitat supporting people and the earth. It is a lot more involved than gardening organically, and, depending on the Climate, may not ever be sel f-sufficient in food and energy without limited dependence on outside resources and energy. Permaculture is a balance of living in a symbiotic relationship with the earth. It is also a bonding experience through the cooperation that occurs wben people work Fall 1994 Page 17 ENERGY FLOW IN A CLOSED SYSTEM HABITAT -contillued 011 page 26- Step 3. Time Management. As stated earlier, pernJaculture takes a lot of work, discipline and patience. What seems to be sacrificed in the pursuit of permaculture is leisure time and money. What is gained from not watching television or having a big bank account is a different sense of reality and a solid connection with the earth and your environment. Stan by roughing out daily activities: chores, working at a job, leisure time, food prep, etc. This will give an indication of how much time is needed for essential things, and where to find more. Daily ntail1tenance of most of the waste and food systems is essential. Long term planning is required for seasonal food production. Good results follow good record keeping on performance of all aspects of the perntaculture. Time managemem and planning are important, for example when the crops all nJature at once and one is working full time. dening planters, small plots in the yard or community gardens or a neighbour's or friend's place, until you are capable of growing a good portion of your own fruits and vegetables, including preserving food and recycling the garden debris. Supermarkets make it look easy, bUl think of all the energy needed to get the packaged stuff onto the shelves, too much energy made and disposed of in an inappropriate ntallller. Food grown at home takes energy too, but a different energy, mostly from calories burned by human activity. Step 4. DesignlPlanning. This step goes hand in hand with "time management." Effective design is important, as permaculture is an overlapping intricate mosaic of food, waste and energy systems. Efficient use of time is needed to accomplish all the work and presence is required for each system. How these pieces fit together is important to consider. It's a good idea to design with future improvements in mind, planning out how these later stages will be implememed without compromising other aspects of the design. Bill Mollison talks about the importance of designing with "zones." Imagine a group of radiating circles on a specific site, like a bull's eye. The centre ring is used for the daily activities, the house and workshop along with other systems requiring daily maintenance, greenhouse, animal housing, etc. The second zone, or ring, is for less intensive systems, i.e. garden, ntachine garage, storage. Zone 3 -/ ,/ /" /' / / / / I / I f !I ,.-,;-,-,-~~ ....-./ /" ./ / /" / / / i / i i Step 2. Grow food. It is simple to say, but if one has never grown a plant from seed before, and that is more common than not these days, growing food seems overwhelming. John Jeavons' book, Grow More Vegetables... tlwn you ever thought possible on less land than you can imagine, is a good resource for the beginning intensive gardener; lots of information and practical designs for small areas, plus compost and nutritional guides. Another book for some practical vegetable growing info is Growing Vegetables West Of the Cascades, by Steve Solomon. A bit specific as far as bioregion, but relatively adaptable, as is Grow More Vegetables... , which is based in southern California. Begin growing foods with alfalfa sprouts or herbs in small pots, and work up through the different levels of gar-agriculture (C.S.A.) or through local farmer markets and co-operatives ensures the success of alternative agriculture and allows future food producers market outlets. Community supported agriculture is people trading for "shares," in the form of food, from nearby food producers, allowing the farmer or gardener to grow food in a wholistic way with money and help up front instead of taking out loans or going in debt. C.S.A.s support small-scale and family farms. Associated with using foods from nearby is the need to locally ntanage waste. City life can make this difficult, with the need for space and with local restrictive ordinances, which also makes self-sufficiency hard to achieve. Until urban areas realize that corporate (large-scale) waste management is too costly in energy and resources, and that it is in t11eir best interest to re-use and recycle "waste," or in our case resources, we must do what is possible to recycle on our own. This can mean anything from taking back soda bollies to voting in change to using appropriate technologies that reuse waste on site. Perntaculture illustrates the need to keep energy and plant nutrient on site. Once a halance is started, very little energy is needed to continue tlle process if steps are taken to reuse/recycle energy and ntalter on site. Composting is an example of waste management and recycling. VemJaculture (growing red wiggler wonus) is another. The Edible City Resource Center helps produce a quarterly, Wonn Digest, specifically on verntaculture; also, a good book is Mary Appelhoff's Wonns Eat My GarlJage: How to set up and maintain a wonn~omposting system (Flower Press, 1993). Page 18 Kick It Over - Anarcho-Spatialism - Towards an Egalitarian Land Tenure An accurate description of future land tenure after so revolutionary a change as anarchy is impossible. Imagine someone before the industrial revolution attempting to describe the present. Max Stimer writes in The Ego and His Own, "Of what sort is the settlement to be? One might as well ask that I cast a child's nativity. What a slave will do as soon as he has broken his fetters, one must - await." Nevertheless, if we will destroy the old structure, we must make an attempt to paint a picture, however two dimensional, of the new social relationships for which we strive. "The question of land refuses to go away." writes Hakim Bey) in T.A.Z. "How can we separate the concept of space from the mechanisms of control? The territorial gangsters, the Nation/States, have hogged the entire map. Who can invent for us a cartography of autonomy, who can draw a map that includes our desires?" The Kingsgate Squatters and Rent Strikers Cooperative for Self-Management rises to answer the question with a concrete answer: "Territory organised for the joy of living." (Anarchy no. 16, 1975). Other anarchists answer the question of how to organize land-space as well. In his book On Common Ground, Francis Reed looks to the idyllic pastoral paintings which he claims compensated the 'national psyche' for common lands lost to enclosure during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He posits them as a template for a future anarchist society that will "stand as a record of 'a world of pastoral beauty that could be ours, if we did but desire it passionately enough'; icons to be carried through the desert on our exodus from the land." These vague imaginings of the future are important, but they raise more questions than answers. Anarcho-Spatialism: an Ideal In order to facilitate the discussion of practical and theoretical anarchist land tenures, lets begin with a name. I propose 'anarcho-spatialism.' 'Anarchy,' the first part of our new word, means without rule, government, or domination. 'Spatial' means having to do with space, e.g. land, blank walls for graffiti, and condemned houses for squatting. Francis Reed writes of the importance of space: Space and psyche can be seen as the basic material of a living process which we at once inhabit and which inhabits us; apparent in the 'Ieylines' or 'songIines' of the landscape, in the myths and symbols embodied in cities where Ulere is space both for nature and our own inner nature (and where the flow of water is particularly important) and in the geometry of buildings and the relations between people. The suffix "ism" denotes an idea, action and condition of being. Thus we have anarcho-spatialism, defined as a spatial system devoid of domination. The struggle for such a system is Fall 1994 By Anders Con the same word as the system itself; the means and the end are synonyms. As a system which fits into the larger framework of anarchism, anarcho-spatialism must include a conscious perception of the inequity of the State, sexism, racism, c1assism, (speciesism?), and the oppression of children. An equitable system of land tenure must be built upon tlle foundation of an end to all oppression, and is itself a part of that foundation.· Anarcho-spatialism is not a section of anarchism such as anarcha-feminism, anarcho-syndicalism or anarcho-eommunism, because anarcho-spatialism has no essential difference from the former distinct and at times contradictory movements; rather, anarcho-spatialism distinguishes a strand of UlOught and action within existing anarchist movements and can be used to signify the land tenure for which anarchists strive. Anarcho-spatialism has as its basis an end to domination. Land will be distributed according to need and equality, effectively ending landlessness and homelessness. The holding of land will be based on use (usufructuary) or planned use. The producer on land will receive Ule entire product of her/his labor, leaving none for extraction by landowners. This will have the effect of leveling wealth. With access to presenUy unused lands and the entirety of Uleir product, workers will be empowered in economic relations with employers due to the option of self-sufficiency. Individuals will have complete freedom to work for themselves with their own capital or work by contract with the capital of others on free land. Land is for use, not ownership. Anarcho-spatialism will be marked by higher efficiency due to worker control, equitable distribution • Anarchists are faced with a considerable amount of work to adequately coalition with the above list of liberatory struggles. The task ahead is to listen to those oppressed by the above isms, come to an agreement on how a future society might appear. and then work collectively for our common goal. As it is. there is precious little communica· tion between anarchists and these movements. many of which are antagonistic. For example. in the land tenure field. many anarchists are engaged in a misguided battle to convince Black. Chicano and Native American activists that they must abandon goals of a separate national entity in favour of an anarchist collectivity. But what is this collectivity on closer examination of concrete examples such as Makhno's Ukraine or anarchist zones during the Spanish civil war but a form of anarchist nationalism? Native American. African-American. Chicano. and even anarchists nationalists need a border - and an armed one at that to keep aggressive and hegemonic military and cultural machines at bay in order to build and reconstruct cultures free from unwanted influence. "The idea." writes Ward Churchill in Struggle for the Land. "is to consolidate a distinct indigenous territoriality while providing a definable landbase to as many different Indian nations as possible in· the process." Only when we understand and incorporate the needs of those who combat the above isms will we approach a truly anarchist. or indominative. land tenure. Page 19 of land, and a reward to labor of the entire product. Because of heightened income the plague of chronic malnutrition will decrease substantially if not altogether. Discrimination due to race, sex, sexual preference or ideology must be eradicated. If a system of land tenure discriminated, it could not be labeled as indominative and thus would not be anarcho-spatialism. For radical environmentalists anarcho-spatialism will include animal parity with humans, and thus a balance will have to be struck between humans, as one species, and the millions of other species that exist. Anarcho-spatialism allows for those who want to simpli fy their lives as well as those who embrace advanced technology, so long as that technology does not infringe upon the rights of other individuals. Impaired Anarchist Land Tenure in an Imperfect World Anarchists have written a good deal about land tenure and liberated small areas of land for short periods of time, giving them a chance to demonstrate, in however imperfect a way, some of the arrangements they desire. "The extent to which theories are valid," writes historian of anarchist Spain Sam Oolgoff, "can be determined only by the extent to which they are practical. Theories that do not correspond to the acid test of real life are worse than useless as a guide to action." In an imperfect world, attempts at anarchist land tenure are YOUR HOUSE IS MINE Page 20 sporadically discernible. Makbno's Ukraine during the early twentieth century, Spain during the Spanish Revolution, and on a much smaller scale anarchist communes following the revolutions of France, the United States and Brazil. Currelll anarchist land tenure is born in squatting conmlUnities throughout Europe and North America in, anlOng other places, AnlSterdam, London, Berlin, Rome, New York and Philadelphia. All of the above anarcho-spatialist incidents tend towards impermanence, Ii fa Hakim Bey's temporary autonomous wne (fAZ), one example of which is the ten-house Mainzerstrasse squat in Germany during 1990. While for a time it functioned as an anarchist community within the shell of an industrial militarist society, it was evenrually evicted after a two hour battle between 500 squatters and GernJan riot police. But eviction did not destroy the anarchist autonomy which only temporarily inhabited the Mainzerstrasse wne. TAZ is designed to be highly mobile and impervious to ruassive and cumbersome Slate apparatus of control. Most of the Mainzerstrasse squatters simply relocated to other squatted buildings in the area. Even with limited success, there are cracks in an anarchist land tenure situated in a violelll world. Where small pieces of land are liberated through purchase or violence, the very means used to secure the land are in cOlllradiction to the concepts of anarchism. In the case of nineteenth and twentieth century anarchist intentional communities, which were often based on communal ownership of land, they were forced into coexistence with larger and often antagonistic populations and legal systems. Revolutionary anarchist armies subjected themselves to authoritarian and timeconsuming wars which made inroads on their ideals, energy and the ability to construct new social relationships. The Second Congress of the people in the anarchist Ukraine met on February 12, 1919, but was unable to devote itself to the problell1S of peaceful construction. Sessions were entirely occupied by questions of defence against invaders. Cultural and political theoretician and active participalll in the Makbnovist army Peter Arshinov believed the basic shortcoming of the Makbnovist movemelll to be its unavoidable concentration on military activities. Three years of uninterrupted civil wars made the southern Ukraine a permanent battlefield. Numerous armies of various parties traversed it in every direction, wreaking ruaterial, social and moral destruction on the peasants. This exhausted the peasants. It destroyed their first experiments in the field of workers' self-management. Their spirit of social creativity was crushed. These conditions tore the Makbnovshchina away from its healthy foundation, away from socially creative work among the masses, and forced it to concentrate on war - revolutionary war, it is true, but war nevertheless. Though anarchists have never experienced utopia, and their communities are constantly subjected to a politicoeconomic atmosphere not of their choosing, ideals were dreamed of and some achieved. Distribution by Need, Equity and Use Perhaps the most salient spatial ideal of anarchists is a call for the distribution of land on the basis of need, equality and use. The first point of Bakunin's Natiollfl/ Cntechism states: "The land is the common property of society. But its Kick It Over fruits and use shall be open only to those who cultivate it by their labour; accordingly, ground rents must be abolished." Jose Vega, an anarchist worker and organizer in the Spanish civil war states: I believe that God created the light, created the water, created the earth and the air for all equally. Nobody should have a right to usurp a part of these things, these substances. If they are usurped by anyone, it is to the detriment of the rest. Each individual, present and future, is seen as having an equal claim on the use of the earth. Even in the most adverse of siruations these concepts are extremely important to anarchists. Carlo Cafiero, a financial supporter of Bakunin who played an important role in the International Brotherhood, was hospitalized in a mental institution after being fowld in 1883 wandering naked in the hills near Florence. Writes historian of anarchism Robert Suskind of Cafiero, "He died nine years later, obsessed with the thought that he was getting more than his just share of sunJight through the windows of his room at the asylwn." Hakim Bey draws inspiration from the eighteenth century pirate Republic of Libertatia, which he claims held land in cormnon. Even in the prolix and erethistic writings of siruationist Guy Debord can be found a desire to "SUbject space to living experi- . ence," and promote the rediscovery of autonomous places "without reintroducing an exclusive attachment to the soil." Joshua Ingalls is a little known North American anarchist of the nineteenth century who dedicated much of his work to the question of land. Laurence Moss paraphrases his writings: In his pamphlet Lalld alld Labor, Ingalls argued that the productive powers of the soil were indestructible and did not owe to any man's individual efforts. Therefore, no man had a legitimate right to establish his perpetual dominion over what in actuality belonged to men in common. The only claim an individual had to fencing off a portion of land for his own was that he occupied the land and made use of it in the satisfaction of his individual needs. Upon his death or departure the individual's tenure ends and the next occupant, who employs the land productively while living on it, acquires a similar but temporary right to exclude others from the land. At all times the right of exclusion is temporary and not absolute. Echoing similar sentiments voiced by Maoris in New Zealand, anarchists also demand not onJy that land be shared equally amongst the present population, but that living individuals will share the earth with future individuals in an infinite extension of time. Thus none will use the earth's resources in a way that is unsustainable, or for which an alternative would not be available when the resources used are exhausted. But even by sharing the land with all future generations of humans, this does not address the concerns of eco-anarchists such as constitute the members of Earth First! They demand that land and the animals on it be respected in their own right, not mistreated as resources for exploitation (even if by anarcho-egalitarian modalities). Some go so far as to join the Voluntary Human Extinction Society, which calls for the gradual withdrawal of all human life on earth. As should be evident, there are many different strains of Fall1994 anarcho-spatialism, many opinions as to how to use and divide, or not divide, the land upon which we live. One major point of agreement, however, is a negative attitude towards absentee land ownership. Those who have little need to use land are commonly told they have no right to charge for what they do not use; holding of land will only be for those who use it. Myrna Breitbart promotes land utilization for, community need rather than profit: The use of agricultural land under anarchy would be determined by, on the one hand, its suitability to particular uses, and on the other by local or regional needs. Land would be used not for the purpose which yields the highest money rent, but rather, for that which offers the greatest social utility. Russian anarchists affiliated with Zemlja i Volja in the nineteenth century called for land to belong to the whole people: land which had been hitherto held privately was to be held onJy on terms of usufiuct, and after the usufiucruary's death was to accrue to the village. In an introductory proclamation to Ukrainian peasants, the Makhnovists made clear their position on agrarian issues: "The lands of the service gentry, of the monasteries, of the princes and other enemies of the toiling masses, with all their live stock and goods, are passed on to the use of those peasants who support themselves solely through their own labor." Late nineteenth century French anarchist Elisee Reclus explains his philosophy: Thus we shall take the land - yes, we shall take it - but away from those who hold it without working it, in order to return it to those who do work it... what you cultivate, my brother, is yours, and we shall do everything in our power to help you keep it; but what you do not cultivate belongs to a comrade. Make room for him. According to Arshinov these principles were also put into practice by Makhno in 1917 as president of the regional peasants' union during the period of the Kerensky government and in the October days of 1917: ...in August, 1917, he assembled all the pomeshchiks (landed gentry) of the region and made them give him all the documents relating to lands and buildings. He proceeded to take an exact inventory of all this property, and then made a report on it, first at a session of the local soviet, then at the district congress of soviets, and finally at the regional congress of soviets. He proceeded to equalize the rights of the pomeshchiks and the kulaks with those of the poor peasant laborers in regard to the use of the land. Following his proposal, the congress decided to let the pomeshchiks and the kulaks have a share of the land, as well as tools and livestock, equal to that of the laborers. Not to be outdone, the Whiteway Colony adopted principles of egalitarianism at their intentional community in turn of the century England. According to historian Tom Keell Wolfe, In 1899 the title deeds were burnt with some ceremony and the Colony's basis was laid down there should be no private ownership of land control of the land and any business to do with it should be in the hands of the Colony Meeting - Page 21 LANDOWNERS GAMBLING THEIR PEASANTS, BY GUSTAVE DOR~. individual plots of land were held on the basis of use-occupation. Plots were allocated by the Meeting, which had no power to take it away. When the occupier left Whiteway the land reverted to the control of the Meeting, and could be reallocated. During the Spanish civil war individuals were forbidden to take over more land then they could personally cultivate without wage labor, and sixty percent of anarchist liberated land in Spain was quickly brought under collective cultivation by the peasants. The figures in Aragon and Catalonia were much greater at seventy-five and ninety percent respectively, illustrating the extent of communalization and redistribution achieved. There were about 2,000 anarchist agricultural collectives involving approxintately 800,000 people all told. While anarchists generally look on the future formation of collectives as the primary mode of production, and propertylessness as the status of consumables, when pressed they generally make room for individualists, or those who wish to produce without collective association. In their July, 1%4, issue devoted to land, the editors of the British ntagazine Anarchy point out that the anarchist movement is not to confiscate the small home or farm: The one thing that most people know about the 19th century French anarchist Proudhon is that he coined the slogan "Property is Theft" and later in life modified this to "Property is Freedom." This always raises a laugh, but Proudhon was in fact talking about two different kinds of property. The property of the man who draws an income from thousands of acres, or from the ownership of an oilwell or a factory, or from speculation, is obvi- Page 22 ously different from the property of the peasant cultivator. There is a difference between owning your means of livelihood and owning lCI. In any case, it is impossible to know what an anarchist land tenure will look like, and it is most certainly an evolving proposition. If it is implemented by a significant part of the population, and at the same time remains userdeveloped, it will be subject to massive transformation. By the time we get there, if in fact a there exists, it will probably no longer be called anarchism. Landownership as Fiction 111 order to achieve anarcho-spatialland tenure, it is helpful to interrogate the fictive nature of our present system of landed property. "It is only the abstract mentality which sees space as a commodifiable resource," writes Francis Reed, "to be let by the square metre, a void to be filled, that bas thrown the relationship out of balance and spawned a rigid formalism completely lacking in habitable space." Land ownership is a juridical construction with roots in, among other things, the warrior clans of pre-imperialist Rome, feudal monarchies, the Napoleonic Code, English Common Law, and European imperialism. As an intaginative method of domination it has worked well in forcing us to believe that the land upon which we stand belongs to this fictive concept of an 'owner,' but by acts of will it is possible to transcend ourselves and the cop in our head. When you are clear that the present system of land tenure is deeply flawed, when you have a vision of, and act in accordance with a land ethic based on your desire, the system of land ownership will be demoted to the status of a fiction. "Private property lives by grace of the !£lw, • writes Stimer. "Only in the Kick It Over law bas it its warrant - for possession is not yet property, it becomes 'mine' only by assent of the law; it is not a fact, not w! fait as Proudhon thinks, but a fiction, a thought." Change thought and a revolution takes place. In a world where fictional paradigms continue, a path is open to action and resistance for those who think outside the bounds of property lines. Whether you choose violence or non-violence, bureaucratic resistance or land occupation, education or theft, disruption or insurrection, we must resist and create if we are to change the present to a land tenure based upon desire. Anders Corr is an independent researcher and writer on subjects of land, housing, and direct action politics. He invites criticism or comments which can be sent to P.O. Box 7691, Santa Cruz, CA 95061, USA. REFERENCES: Arshinov, Peter. History of the Mekhnovist Movement 1918-1921. London: Freedom Press, 1987. Bakunin, Mikhail. ~kunin on Anerchy. Ed. and trans. Sam Dolgoff. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972. Bey, Hakim. T.A.Z. The Temporery Autonomous Zone, Ontologicel Anerchy, Poetic Terrorism. Brooklyn, New York: Autonomedia, 1991. Breitbart, Myrna. Impressions of an Anarchist Landscape. Antipode, Vol. 7, no. 2. ISeptember, 1975). Churchill, Ward. Struggle for the Lend: Indigenous Resistence to Genocide, Ecocide end Exproprietion in Contemporery North Americe. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1993. Debord, Guy. Territorial Management. Situetionist Internetionel Review of the Americen Section of the S.I., no. 1 (July 1964). Dolgoff, Sam, editor. The Anerchist Collectives. Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1974. Fleming, Marie. The Geogrephy of Freedom. Montreal:' Black Rose Books, 1988. Guerin, Daniel. Anarchism: from Theory to Prectice. Trans. Mary Klopper. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970. Masaryk, Thomas G. Land and Freedom: Peasant Anarchism in Russia. In The Anerchists, edited by Irving Louis Horowitz. New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1964. Mintz, Jerome R. The Anerchists of Cases Viejes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Moss, Laurence S. Private Property Anarchism: An American Variant. In Further Exploretions in the Theory of Anerchy. Ed. Gordon Tullock. Blacksburg, Virginia: University Publications, 1974. Oved, Yaacov. Communismo Libertario and Communalism in the Spanish COllectivisations (1936-1939). The Reven, #17, Vol. 5, No.1. Jan-Mar 1992. Reed, Francis. On Common Ground. London: Working Press, 1991. Stirner, Max. The Ego end His Own. Translated by Steven T. Byington. London: A.C. Fifield, 1912. Voline. Nestor Makhno and Anarchism in the Russian Revolution. In The Essentiel Works of Anerchism. Ed. Marshall S. Shatz. New York: Quadrangle Books, 1972. Woodcock, George. New Life to the Lend. London: Freedom Press, Aug. 1942. A few other resources on the topic of Food and Land: Dreamtime Village is a rural experiment in combining permaculture with the "unlimited possibilities of hypermedia arts." Each year they hold a number of workshops on agricultural, arts and political subjects, plus a summer Corroboree. Sample copies of their magazine, Dreamtime Talking Mail, are available for $4.00 (subs are $12.00/3 issues). For further details, write to: Dreamtime Village, Rt. 2, Box 242W, Viola, WI 54664 USA. TRlP (The Resources of International Permaculture) and UPPITY (Unofficial Permaculture Publication Independently to You) are compilations of permaculture resources, programs, groups, etc. Both are from Yankee Permaculture, a publisher and distributor of permaculture publications. Yankee Permaculture also publishes The International Permaculture Solutions Journal. The Journal is available for $25.00/4 issues; TRlP costs $16.50 (US), $18.00 (elsewhere). Write to: Permaculture, PO Box 672, Dahlonega, GA 30533-0672, USA. The Ram's Hom is a newsletter of food system analysis, put out by Cathleen and Brewster Kneen. Brewster Kneen is the author of the book From Land to Mouth, which provides a useful analysis of the global food system, from barnyard to boardroom to biotechnology; From Land to Mouth, Second Helping is a recently expanded and updated edition of the book. The Ram's Hom, while small at 8 pages, is an excellent source of information and opinion on the state of our food. Subscription $15.oo/year (II issues) from: The Fall 1994 Ram's Hom, 125 Highfield Road, Toronto, ON M4L 2T9, Canada. Sustainable Agriculture in Print: Current Books is available free from: Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agriculture Library, Room 111, 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Beltsville, MD 20705 USA. • Those who would like to learn more about Henry George and his proposal for a land value tax (mentioned in Anders Corr's article), can contact Land and Liberty, 177 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SWIV lEU, England. Their bimonthly magazine, Land and Liberty, is available for $2.25 (US) a copy. The winter 1993/94 issue of Raise the Stakes explored the theme Food as Place: Bioregional Agriculture. A.mong the topics discussed were backyard gardening and solutions to the problems created by large-scale agriculture, eating local instead of imported foods, the horticultural practices and plant uses of California native tribes, and more. This grandparent of bioregionalism is always an interesting and useful read. Food as Place costs $4.00 plus $2.00 p&h; membership in the Planet Drum Foundation (publisher of Raise the Stakes) costs $20.00, and brings you tlle halfyearly Raise the Stakes and lots more. Planet Drum Foundation, PO Box 31251, San Francisco, CA 94131, Shasta Bioregion, USA. Page 23 Land Trusts land held in common L and trusts, non-profit entities that purchase land for sustainable ac-tivities, have become a potent tool for people . concerned with environmental and social justice issues. There are approximately one thousand land trusts in North America at this time, including conservation trusts, farm land trusts, sustainable forestry trusts, and urban land trusts. These trusts have taken about three million acres of land out of the real estate and resource-extraction markets. A brief history of land ownership will provide some background on the need for land trusts today. For thousands of years, humankind lived as huntergatherers. They ate what they found - the animals they hunted, and the nuts, seeds, grains, fruits and vegetables they gathered. By necessity, they were nomadic: when hunters had to travel farther to find animals, or when gatherers had to spend more time foraging, it was time to move to another location. These peoples saw the land as the Mother, the provider of life. As Kirkpatrick Sale put it in Dwellers in the Land: The Bioregional Vision, their "respect for the natural world and an appreciation of the land itself as sacred and inviolable was surely inevitable. " They did not own the land; food and duties were shared by all. Approximately 10,000 years ago, humanity developed agriculture in what we now called "the cradle of civilization" the lands between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The Mesopotamians discovered that they could plant and grow grains that previously they could harvest only where they found them. This development of a secure food source allowed people to settle in one location. As agricultural surpluses developed and populations increased, these smaIl settlements developed into villages, then cities. Along with the growth of cities came separation of labour. The land was still held in common. During feudal times in Europe, the land was "owned" by the monarch. He collected taxes from users of the land, and gave large parcels of it to men of the aristocracy, who then "rented" it out to serfs for a share of the harvest. Up to the mid-1600s, much of Britain's land was still held in common, that is, peasants could use it to grow crops, or graze sheep, or cut firewood. Starting in the mid-1600s, and for the next 150 years, these common lands were gradually enclosed, much of it to raise sheep for the fast-growing woollen industry. By 1845, 4,000 Private Acts of Enclosure had privatized seven million acres of common land. In 1845, the British Parliament passed the Great Enclosure Act, enclosing the balance of the commons. The peasants were forced off the land and joined others to live in the forests. However, the forests were soon devastated to supply timber for the coal mines and the British navy. Eventually, many of these people became coal mine workers or worked in the first of the large enterprises based on large-scale investment, centralized (city) production, and Page 24 by Jeff Johnston a division of labour. Land could be bought and sold freely, and owners enjoyed specific rights, including the right to do what they pleased on their land, and the right to evict trespassers. Europeans brought their ideas of land ownership and land use to North America. These ideas were incomprehensible to the indigenous peoples living here successfully with minimal impact upon the land. Much of the eastern third of both Canada and the US is privately owned, as a result of settlement prior to the establishment of central governments. As well, in Canada, the British government granted tracts of land to soldiers for services rendered to the crown. When the west was settled, the US federal governmelll took much of the forested land, leaving the fertile prairies to be farmed by private land owners. In Canada, most of the forests are govemment-owned as well, although by tile provinces instead of tile federal government. Both federal governments encouraged the railways to expand and open up tile west by granting them millions of acres of land. The Canadian government settled the prairies by advertising free land to people in Europe if they agreed to come and farm it. The US government passed the Homestead Act in 1862, which gave 160 acres to a family to farm. As the cities continued to grow, demand for wood increased dramatically. The governments took stumpage fees from timber companies in return for permission to clear cut trees - it seemed then that there would be enough forests to last forever. As the population grew, more land was needed to raise cattle. The US government provided western public lands at ridiculously low prices to ranchers. (According to The Wilderness Society, using USDA Agricultural Statistics Board information, today's rates can be as little as one-sixth the rates on private lands.) With the advent of the production line, allowing massproduced and inexpensive automobiles, people began to move out of the city to the surrounding lands, destroying arable land. Govenmlents used more land building roads and highways. After World War II, chemical companies began producing synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, which were most economical and effective when used on large acreages. Fanners were encouraged by banks to borrow money to mechanize for their larger fanns, and were only loaned money if they agreed to use chemicals o
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|Title||Kick it over. No. 34|
|Title - Alternative||Food and land|
|Library has||5-8, 10-11, 14, 17-20, 33-34; 1982-2000 (digitized as part of the Jim Campbell (Julie Thiers) Collection) ; 2, 4-28, 33, 36, 38-39; 1982-2001 (print holdings: gift of Sam Wagar related to anarchist studies at UVic.)|
|Description||Item is a journal.|
|Subject||Anarchism--Periodicals; Anarchism--Canada--Periodicals; Anarchists--Periodicals; Anarchists--Canada--Periodicals|
|Detailed description||No. 34, [Fall 1994] (67 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.) "Food and land" In this issue: Radical agriculture, Permaculture, Anarcho-spatialism, Food not bombs.|
|Coverage - Geographic||Canada|
|Publisher||Kick It Over Collective|
|Contributor||Kick It Over Collective|
|Type of material||text|
|Collection||Jim Campbell (Julie Thiers) Collection|
|Provenance||University of Victoria Archives|
|Access and Use Rights||Contact UVic Archives for access to the original, or ask UVic Archives to make a copy (fee for service). Patrons may look at the material through the Anarchism Digital Research Centre, but may not use images unless they contact UVic Archives.|
Canada USA $3.00 Australia $3.60 UK £1.60
FOOD AND LAND
Food Not Bombs
Our relationship to the food we
eat is intimately tied to our relationship
with the land on which it grows.
In the struggle to create anew, more
liberatory society it is vital that we
explore the nature of this relationship.
The articles in this issue indicate some
of the directions such an exploration
Murray Bookchin's essay on
Radical Agriculture and Jay Bo~ess's
article on Perrnaculture link the Joint
themes. Anders Corr offers a general
theory of anarchist land tenure in his
essay on Anarcho-spatialism, and Jeff
Johnston gets more specific with his
look at land trusts. Food in a very
political context is the subject of the
two articles that close out the theme,
on the growing Food Not Bombs
movement and the harassment they've
been facing from the San Francisco
police, and the McLibel case in England,
in which two anarchist activists
have been sued by McDonald's for
their activities in exposing the corporate
In addition, we have pieces exploring
the importance of the built
environment, the response of Toronto's
gay community to the defeat of
Bill 167 (gay rights legislation which
was defeated by a coalition of rightwing
religious nuts and opportunistic
politicians), and a Lesbian Avengers
Pride Ride through the US south. Plus
poetry, posters, biography, news...
Of course, even before you got
this far, you will have noticed a couple
of the changes this issue initiates - a
new cover look and a thicker magazine.
Both changes have been under
consideration for a while, but cost has
held us back. However, recent conversations
with some of our distributors
have prompted the move.
One of my aims in doing Kick It
Over is reaching out to new people
with anarchist ideas. Fundamental to
getting the ideas to new people is getting
them to read the magazme. If a
more attractive cover inspires more
potential readers to look at Kick It
Over, or more stores to stock it so that
more potential readers can look at it,
then let's go for it.
Besides which, i have a strong
wish to make the magazine more attractive
and visually interesting, and a
more substantial cover is a start in this
As for the increased page count well,
there's so much to be said, i'd
like to increase it even more.
But the biggest change of all is in
the editorship. The Kick It Over collective
has effectively (for now at
least) dissolved. The magazine is now
being edited by one person, bob melcombe.
This change came about for a
variety of reasons, mostly relating to
time, energy, and other commitments.
Friends and former editors are
continuing to help me with some of the
work, but final responsibility is mine.
This will of necessity mean that such
things as correspondence and followups
to article and graphics submissions
may fall behind. I will do my best to
keep up, but urge readers and contributors
to be patient. My commitment to
Kick It Over is strong, but so is my
commitment to my family and friends,
and to my other political projects.
To the Future...
Regular readers will have noticed
that Kick It Over has developed some-
What We Believe
thing of a pattern over our last few issues:
roughly a third to a half of each
issue focuses on a theme, another third
consists of non-theme articles, and the
balance is short pieces, columns and
briefs, and letters. This is a pattern i
quite like and plan to continue. Having
a larger page count should facilitate
including both more theme-related articles
and more general articles. In
addition, i hope to add a few more
regular features over the next few issues,
including a larger book review
section, more poetry and visuals, and
perhaps some short fiction or experimental
The next Kick It Over will be
about Work; we'll look at the role of
work, ways to make work less onerous,
organization of the workplace,
and anything else that comes to mind.
Deadline for submissions will be January
31. Following that will be an issue
on violence, non-violence and anarchism.
Let me know what other
themes you'd like to see featured.
Kick It Over is seriously short of
money. This issue has been funded in
large part from Maria's and my pockets
- something which we cannot afford
to do too often. While i hope the
changes and improvements will lead to
an increase in both store sales and subscriptions,
that's an incremental process,
and one that needs money to make
it happen. We appreciate any contributions
you can make.
As announced last issue, we are'
increasing our subscription rates, to
- continued on page 4-
The Kickh 01111' collective is opposed to all forms of hierarchy and domination, whether right or left.
for us, revolution is more a process than an event - a process rooted in the radicalization of individuals and in the transformation of everyday life.
Rather than make a principle out of violence or nonviolence, we believe in judging actions on their own merits.
We support acts of challenge and resistance to authority, and we encourage all efforts to develop models for a new way of living.
We are not a mouthpiece for an "official" anarchist movement. We prefer to go beyond the stock issues which make up the "left agenda."
Since we are interested in the creation of a politics of everyday life, we attempt to draw out and popularize those implicitly radical values and lifestyles
which we believe are pointing in the direction of freedom.
We do not identify with the "official left," which seeks to establish itself as a new ruling group. We identify with, and seek to give voice to, the largely
unarticulated anti·authoritarian tendencies within society.
We are committed to spontaneity, by which we mean the triumph of life over dogma. Hence, we believe that freedom is in need of constant redefinition.
Page 2 Kick It Over
In This Issue
FOOD AND LAND
12 Radical Agriculture
by Murray Bookchin
a poem by JM de Moissac
17 Pennaculture: Focus on the Future
by Jay Boggess
19 Anarcho-Spatialism: Towards an Egalitarian
by Anders Carr
24 Land Trusts: Land Held in Common
by Jeff Johnston
27 Food Not Bombs: Resisting the Censorship
of Free Food and the Criminalization of
by Alex Vitale and Keith McHenry
32 Ronald McDonald Throws a Tantrum: The
5 Paths to Social Change
8 World Without Borders
57 Book Reviews
Political Ecology: Beyond Environmentalism;
The Politics oflndividualism: Liberalism, Liberal
Feminism and Anarchism; Drunken Boat; Get A Life!:
A Green Cure for Canada's Economic Blues
60 In Brief
34 Flyposter Frenzy
selections from the book
37 A Canadian Dyke in the Deep South
by Deb Ellis
40 Spousal Wrongs
by Lynna Landstreet
42 The Crisis in the Built Environment of the UK
by Manha Brett and Daniel James
45 Reports from a summer of gatherings•••
Social Ecology and Municipal Democracy; Greening
Our Cities; Our Local Economy; Anarchist
Black Cross; Rural and Urban Collectives - how
to make the link
48 Summer Camp for Anarchists: Twenty
Years of Radicalizing the Greens at the
Institute for Social Ecology
by Phillip Chee
50 Neither East Nor West Network Fonning
52 #5781 Goes to Hear Amiri Baraka Read for
Post-Modern Poetry and Barnes and Noble,
by Joffre Stewan
54 An Anarchist Life: Giovanni "John" Vattuone
by David Koven
front cover graphic by John Yates/Stealworks
back cover graphic by Bob Tonks
graphics this page:Food Not Bombs
Doug Minkler/Flyposter Frenzy
notes to our readers
-colltilluedfrom page 2-
$12.00/year (4 issues). US and overseas
readers please note, payment is
due in US funds. (Although we will
continue to accept both UK pounds
and Australian dollars, it'll make life a
whole lot easier if you'd oblige us in
Mailing List Exchanges
One of Kick It Over's distributors
has asked about a mailing list exchange.
They'd like to mail copies of
their catalogue to Kick It Over readers.
In exchange, we'd get to mail
sample copies of Kick It Over to their
customers. While this is a way in
which both of us can reach out to new
readers, i want to know how you feel
before going ahead.
Please let me know by January 31
if you DO NOT wish to have your
name and address either given to, or
used on behalf of, other anarchist projects.
If i have not heard from you by
then, i will assume you don't object.
Kick It Over goes to cyber-space
Kick It Over now has an e-mail
address, and is available through the
Internet. The electronic edition (text
only) will cost $2.00/issue, $8.00/year
Readers who'd like to receive the
e-mail edition can contact us at:
KIO@web.apc.org. We'd also like to
encourage other anarchist and antiauthoritarian
projects to make use of
this new facilIty.
In other news...
Long-time Kick It Over readers
will recall an article in issue #27,
Seekillg UllcitizellShip Papers, in
AtI.1/@ ~ tI.1/A-dolri ~
is a loosely seU-organized. \,Iolunlary & interna·
tional netwOrk established to encourage and
practice mutual aid. inspiration and support in
the conceptK>n. prooUCbOn. realization &, distrj..
bution of anarchist media of all kinds-PRINT.
FILM. VIDEO. RADIO. POETICS. MUSIC. COMIC~
SOUND RECORDINGS. liBRARIES & DOCUMENT....
liON CENTERS. BOOKSTORES & ANARCHIST
CENTERS. ETC. Arty anarchist·idenbfied project
is welcome to loin thiS netwOt'k by declaring its
affiliation (and communicating a v811>ion of this
nota if possible). No member of the network
has any speofic obligations to any other members
beyond its general adherence 10 the spirit
or this statement as interpreted by that memo
Sond ." SASE lor an upd~ttK1copy 01 OUt current
lisl 01 members 10: C..A.L. POB 1446. Columbi~. M:
65205·7446, Of Acts of Res/stanc., 537 Jixru:
II 75iU. San FfW'ICf$CO, CA P.f '02,
which we excerpted sections of Clark
Hanjian's pampWet The Citizenship
Papers. The pamphlet described
Clark's attempt to formally renounce
his citizenship of the United States,
without having to move out of the
country, and included copies of the
correspondence between himself and
various bureaucratic functionaries. In
a recentleller, Clark writes that he
has had "no significant exchanges
with the government" since then, and
wonders, "perhap's they respect my
position? More lIkely, they think I'm
a nut and they're ignoring me'"
We discovered, too late to do anything
about it, that we forgot to credit
the cover graphics for our last issue.
The striking image on the front cover
is a picture of a tlIird century carved
figure, thought to be a fertilIty figure.
It is the logo of DAWN Canada (Disabled
Women's Network), and we saw
it reproduced in Every Woman's ALmanac.
Our thanks to both DAWN
and the Women's Press.
The back cover came to us courtesy
of Analen of Silid Aklatan (the
mail-order lending library). Analen
says she thinks it's a Clifford Harper
drawing; she is involved with a group
organizing an anarchist community
centre in Los Angeles, and they used
the graphic on one of their posters.
To make use of the library, write to:
Silid AkIatan, PO Box 187, North
Hollywood, CA 91603 USA.
(A parenthetical editorial comment
here - the group organizing the
LA centre have called themselves The
Management. Apparently, some anarchists
don't see the humour in that,
and have given them a hard time.
Lighten up folks, it's a great joke!)
This summer, Maria and i played
host to Wolfgang and Sascha Haug.
Wolfgang is one of the editors of
Schwarzer Faden (Black Thread), the
largest of the German anarchist magazines,
and manages Trotzdem Verlag,
an anarchist book publisher; Sascha is
his 6-year old son. The two were on a
6-week vacation, travelling through
Ontario, New England, and southern
Quebec, and spent their first week in
Toronto. Sascha is a lively youngster,
and kept us all going. And, each evening
after Sascha went to bed, Wolfgang
and i had long and interesting conversations
about magazine publishing, anarchism,
and life in general. It was an
enjoyable week for both Maria and i.
At the end of their stay with us,
Wolfgang and Sascha accompanied me
to Peterborough for a weekend anarchist
gathering put on by a small group
there. While thmgs got off to a slow
Issue #34 November 1994
Edited by bob melcombe. Published
four times a year by Kick It Over.
All correspondence to Kick It Over,
PO Box 5811, Station A, Toronto,
Ontario, Canada M5W 1P2.
Subscriptions (one year/4 issues):
Individual: Canada $12.00, USA
$12.00 - US currency, Australia
$14.00 - Australian cash only, UK
£6.50 personal cheques OK, no
postal money orders.
Institutional: Canada $15.00, USA
$15.00 - US currency, UK £9, Australia
Other countries: please pay the US
prices in US funds.
Sample copies $3.00.
E-mail edition: $2.00/issue. $8.00/year
E-mail address: KIO@ web.apc.org
Canadian Publications Mail Product
Sales Agreement No. 522589. ISSN
0823-6526. Printed in Canada.
Excerpted in Freedom Ideas International
by Our Right to Know Braille Press.
Indexed in the Alternative Press Index.
Kick It Over is a part of the Anarchist
Media Network (@-Netl, and is a
member of the Canadian Magazine
start, the bulk of the weekend was
'luite enlightening. Workshops on polItical
theatre of the oppressed, and anarchist
child-raising were complemented by
campfire discussions on a wide range
of subjects. Probably the two most
dominant themes were Euro-eentrism
within the anarchist movement, and
gender politics and sexism. The necessity
to discuss these subjects as intensely
as we did indicates, to me at
least, how much work we as anarchists
have yet to do to make our movement
truly mclusive and relevant.
Finally, thanks to all those wlIo
have helped with this issue: to Gary
for the typing, to Kevin and Susan and
Steve for the computer assistance, to
Andrew and Chris for gelling Kick It
Over onto the Internet, and to Maria.
- bob melcombe
Kick It Over
Coalition for Cooperative
There are many social innovations
in many parts of the world creating an